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History of Islam


Al-Muqawqis

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Al-Muqawqis

Letter to Muqawqis by Muhammad Al-Muqawqis (Arabic: المقوقس‎, Coptic: ⲭⲁⲩⲕⲓⲁⲛⲟⲥ, ⲕⲁⲩⲭⲓⲟⲥ[1]) is mentioned in Islamic history as a ruler of Egypt, who corresponded with the Islamic prophet Muhammad. He is often identified with Cyrus, Patriarch of Alexandria, who administered Egypt on behalf of the Christian Byzantine Empire. However, this identification is challenged as being based on untenable assumptions. An alternative view identifies al-Muqawqis with the Sassanid governor of Egypt. He was a Greek man and was known as Kirolos, leader of the Copts. Account by Muslim historians Ibn Ishaq and other Muslim historians record that some time between February 628 and 632, Muhammad sent out letters to Arabian and non-Arabian leaders, including the Byzantine ruler, al-Muqawqis: The apostle (Muhammad) had sent out some of his companions in different directions to the kings of the Arabians and the non-Arabians inviting them to Islam in the period between al-Hudaybiya and his death... [He] sent... Hatib ibn Abi Bal

7th-century BC Greek people

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7th-century Egyptian people

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Muslim conquest of Egypt

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Ashab al-Suffa

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Ashab al-Suffa

Ashab al-Suffa, is a general name for young, unmarried and poor citizens who dwelled in Suffas, which were established by the Islamic prophet Muhammad next to Al-Masjid an-Nabawi. Those citizens were usually orphans, who were striving to learn business, art, agriculture and Islam. They were not educated in any kind of crafts so they generally preferred to spend their day by Muhammad and memorised verses from Quran, cited by the prophet. They studied the Quran and Sunnah. When the government would assign someone as a teacher in religious studies, this teacher would be someone from among those students. Abu Hurairah is one of the eminent scholars, educated in Suffas. See also Suffah Sufism

7th-century Islam

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History of Islam

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Azariqa

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Azariqa

The Azariqa (Arabic الأزارقة, al-azāriqa) were the strongest and the most extreme branch of Khawarij, who followed the leadership of Nafi ibn al-Azraq al-Hanafī al-Handhalī.

Kharijism

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History of Islam

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Islamic branches

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Haruriyyah

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Haruriyyah

Muhakkima (Arabic: محكمة‎) and al-Haruriyya (Arabic: الحرورية‎) refer to the Muslims who rejected arbitration between Ali ibn Abi Talib and Mu'awiya at the Battle of Siffin in 657 CE.[1] The name Muḥakkima derives from their slogan la hukma illa li-llah, meaning "judgment (hukm) belongs to God alone".[1] The name al-Haruriyya refers to their withdrawal from Ali's army to the village of Harura' near Kufa.[1] This episode marked the start of the Kharijite movement, and the term muḥakkima is often also applied by extension to later Kharijites.[1] In recent times, some adherents of Ibadism, which is commonly identified as a moderate offshoot of the Kharijite movement, have argued that the precursors of both Ibadism and extremist Kharijite sects should be properly called Muḥakkima and al-Haruriyya rather than Kharijites. Battle of Siffin During the Battle of Siffin, Mu'awiya proposed to Ali to settle their dispute through arbitration, with each side appointing referees who would pronounce judgment according to

Ibadi studies

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Ibadi

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Islamic branches

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Najdat

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Najdat

The Najdat were the sub-sect of the Kharijite movement that followed Najda ibn 'Amir al-Hanafi in the late 7th century and briefly ruled over the historical provinces of Yamamah and Bahrayn in central and eastern Arabia. See also Kharijites

7th-century Islam

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History of Islam

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Islamic branches

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Kanem–Bornu Empire

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Kanem–Bornu Empire

The Kanem–Bornu Empire existed in areas which are now part of Chad and Nigeria. It was known to the Arabian geographers as the Kanem Empire from the 8th century AD onward and lasted as the independent kingdom of Bornu (the Bornu Empire) until 1900. The Kanem Empire (c. 700–1380) was located in the present countries of Chad, Nigeria and Libya.[2] At its height it encompassed an area covering not only most of Chad, but also parts of southern Libya (Fezzan) and eastern Niger, northeastern Nigeria and northern Cameroon. The Bornu Empire (1380s–1893) was a state in what is now northeastern Nigeria, in time becoming even larger than Kanem, incorporating areas that are today parts of Chad, Niger, Sudan, and Cameroon. It existed from 1380s to 1893. The early history of the Empire is mainly known from the Royal Chronicle or Girgam discovered in 1851 by the German traveller Heinrich Barth. History Theories on the origin of Kanem Kanem was located at the southern end of the trans-Saharan trade route between Tripoli an

Former country articles categorised by governme...

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Sahelian kingdoms

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History of Niger

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Makuria

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Makuria

Makuria (Old Nubian: ⲇⲱⲧⲁⲩⲟ, Dotawo; Greek: Μακογρια, Makouria; Arabic: المقرة‎, al-Muqurra) was a Nubian kingdom located in what is today Northern Sudan and Southern Egypt. Makuria originally covered the area along the Nile River from the Third Cataract to somewhere south of Abu Hamad as well as parts of northern Kordofan. Its capital was Dongola (Old Nubian: Tungul), and the kingdom is sometimes known by the name of its capital. By the end of the 6th century, it had converted to Christianity, but in the 7th century, Egypt was conquered by the Islamic armies. In 651 an Arab army invaded, but it was repulsed and a treaty known as the baqt was signed creating a relative peace between the two sides that lasted until the 13th century. Makuria expanded by annexing its northern neighbour Nobatia at some point in the seventh century, while also maintaining close dynastic ties with the kingdom of Alodia to the south. The period from the 9th to 11th century saw the peak of Makuria's cultural development: new monumen

Former country articles categorised by governme...

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Christianity in the Middle Ages

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History of Sudan

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Shaheen (novel)

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Shaheen (novel)

Shaheen is a historical novel written in Urdu by Pakistani Islamic historian and novelist Naseem Hijazi. It details the situation of the Muslims in Granada in 1492 when they were about to be expelled from Spain. The novel also very beautifully depicts the reasons of the destruction of Muslim power in Granada. External links Shaheen and other novels by Naseem Hijazi available online

Emirate of Granada

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Pakistani novels

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Urdu-language literature

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Siege of Jerusalem (636–637)

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Siege of Jerusalem (636–637)

The Siege of Jerusalem was part of a military conflict which took place in the year 637 between the Byzantine Empire and the Rashidun Caliphate. It began when the Rashidun army, under the command of Abu Ubaidah, besieged Jerusalem in November 636. After six months, the Patriarch Sophronius agreed to surrender, on condition that he submit only to the Caliph. In April 637, Caliph Umar traveled to Jerusalem in person to receive the submission of the city. The Patriarch thus surrendered to him. The Muslim conquest of the city solidified Arab control over Palestine, which would not again be threatened until the First Crusade in the late 11th century. Background Jerusalem was an important city of the Byzantine province of Palestina Prima. Just 23 years prior to the Muslim conquest, in 614, it fell to an invading Sassanid army under Shahrbaraz during the last of the Byzantine-Sassanid Wars. The Persians looted the city, and are said to have massacred its 90,000 Christian inhabitants.[2] As part of the looting, th

637

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636

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630s in the Byzantine Empire

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Ahl al-Hadith

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Ahl al-Hadith

Ahl al-Hadith (Arabic: أهل الحديث‎, romanized: The people of hadith; also Așḥāb al-Hadiṯh, Arabic: أصحاب الحديث‎, romanized: The adherents of the hadith) was an Islamic school of thought that first emerged during the 2nd/3rd Islamic centuries of the Islamic era (late 8th and 9th century CE) as a movement of hadith scholars who considered the Quran and authentic hadith to be the only authority in matters of law and creed.[1] Its adherents have also been referred to as traditionalists and sometimes traditionists (from "tradition" as a translation of the word hadith).[2] In jurisprudence Ahl al-Hadith opposed contemporary jurists who based their legal reasoning on informed opinion (ra'y) or living local practice, referred to as Ahl ar-Ra'y.[1][3] In matters of faith, they were pitted against the Mu'tazilites and other theological currents, condemning many points of their doctrines as well as the rationalistic methods they used in defending them.[4] The most prominent leader of the movement was Ahmad ibn Hanbal.

Sunni Islamic branches

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Islamic terminology

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Islamic jurisprudence

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Beheading in Islam

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Beheading in Islam

Beheading was a standard method of execution in pre-modern Islamic law, similarly to pre-modern European law. Its use had been abandoned in most countries by the end of the 20th century. Currently, it is used only in Saudi Arabia. It also remains a legal method of execution in Qatar, Yemen, and was reportedly used in 2001 in Iran according to Amnesty International, where it is no longer in use.[1] In recent times, non-state Jihadist organizations such as ISIL and Tawhid and Jihad have used beheading as a method of killing captives. Since 2002, they have circulated beheading videos as a form of terror and propaganda.[2][3] Their actions have been condemned by other militant and terrorist groups, as well as by mainstream Islamic scholars and organizations. Beheading: background and context The use of beheading for punishment continued well into the 20th century in both Islamic and non-Islamic nations.[4][5] When done properly, it was once considered a humane and honorable method of execution. Beheading in I

Islam and capital punishment

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Execution methods

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Accuracy disputes from August 2016

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Spread of Islam in Southeast Asia

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Spread of Islam in Southeast Asia

Islam is the most widely practiced religion in Southeast Asia, numbering approximately 242 million adherents which translate to about 42% of the entire population, with majorities in Brunei, Indonesia and Malaysia as well Pattani in Thailand and parts of Mindanao in the Philippines respectively.[1] Significant minorities are located in the other Southeast Asian states. Most Muslims in Southeast Asia are Sunni and follow the Shafi`i school of fiqh, or religious law.[2] It is the official religion in Malaysia and Brunei while it is one of the six official faiths in Indonesia. Islam in Southeast Asia is heterogeneous and is manifested in many different ways. Some places in Southeast Asia, Islam is adapted to coexist with already existent local traditions.[3] Mysticism is a defining characteristic of Islam in Southeast Asia, with a large following of Sufism. Mystic forms of Islam fit in well with already established traditions.[3] The adaptation of Islam to local traditions is seen as a positive thing by Muslims

EngvarB from October 2015

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Medieval Islam

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History of Southeast Asia

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The Cambridge History of Islam

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The Cambridge History of Islam

Volume I of The Cambridge History of Islam The Cambridge History of Islam is a two volume history of Islam published by Cambridge University Press in 1970[1] and edited by Peter Holt, Ann K.S. Lambton, and Bernard Lewis. It was reprinted in 1977 with amendments and each volume divided into two for ease of use. It was replaced by the six-volume New Cambridge History of Islam in 2010.[2] Aims and reception The work was designed for undergraduate and graduate students who wanted an authoratitive account of the history of Islam, and for the intelligent layman who enjoyed history. The editors also hoped that it would appeal to the "expert orientalist" and would be used for continuous reading rather than as a work of reference.[3][4] Reviewers agreed that the history was solid but unexciting with a generally cautious approach and lack of analysis, typical they felt, of the multi-authored history that represented a distillation of the consensus in a field rather than one that sought to explore new avenues of e

History books about Islam

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Books about Islam

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Series of history books

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Early Muslim-Meccan Conflict

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Early Muslim-Meccan Conflict

The Early Muslim-Meccan Conflict refer to a series of raids in which the Islamic prophet Muhammed and his companions participated. The raids were generally offensive[1] and carried out to gather intelligence or seize the trade goods of caravans financed by the Quraysh. The raids were intended to weaken the economy of Mecca by Muhammad. His followers were also impoverished.[2] Muhammad broke an Arab tradition of not attacking one's own kinsmen by raiding caravans.[2] The Muslims felt that the raids were justified and that God gave them permission to defend against the Meccans' persecution of Muslims.[3][4] Background Muhammad's followers suffered from poverty after fleeing persecution in Mecca and migrating with Muhammad to Medina. Their Meccan persecutors seized their wealth and belongings left behind in Mecca.[5] Beginning in January 623, some of the Muslims resorted to the tradition of raiding the Meccan caravans that traveled along the eastern coast of the Red Sea from Mecca to Syria. Communal life was

7th-century conflicts

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Battles of Muhammad

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History of Islam

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Islamic Unity week

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Islamic Unity week

Islamic unity week (Persian: هفته وحدت اسلامی) refers to a ceremony held every year both by Sunnis and Shia. The event is held between two dates of the birthday of prophet Muhammad. One of the dates is narrated by Sunnis and the other narrated by Shia. Entitle The previous record of the Islamic unity week is related to the time when Seyyed Ali Khamenei was in Sistan and Baluchestan; and this Shia cleric/scholar (with the co-operation of some Sunni scholars) decided to hold this unity week, and they celebrated these days (Islamic unity week) to show the unity between Shia-Sunni.[1][2] After Iranian Revolution, Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini proposed to call the interval between the two dates as Islamic unity week. Ayatollah Montazeri suggests to ayatollah Khomeini to call the week as Islamic unity week in reaction to the Saudi Mufti's attacks on Sunnis and Shia.[3] The two dates are the twelfth of Rabi Al Awwal, the first week of the third lunar month of the Islamic calendar, according to Sunnis, and the seve

History of Islam

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Oudh Bequest

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Oudh Bequest

The Oudh Bequest is a waqf[1] which led to the gradual transfer of more than six million rupees from the Indian kingdom of Oudh (Awadh) to the Shia holy cities of Najaf and Karbala between 1850 and 1903.[2] The bequest first reached the cities in 1850.[3] It was distributed by two mujtahids, one from each city. The British later gradually took over the bequest and its distribution; according to scholars, they intended to use it as a "power lever" to influence Iranian ulama and Shia.[4] Background In 1825, when Burma experienced economic problems, Oudh king Ghazi al-Din Haydar supported the British East India Company[5] with a 10-million-rupee loan. Although its principal did not have to be repaid, the loan's five-percent annual interest had to be applied to specific objects (including four women: Nawwab Mubarak Mahal, Sultan Maryam Begam, Mumtaz Mahal, and Sarfaraz Mahal, who received 10,000, 2,500, 1,100 and 1,000 rupees per month respectively). Others, including servants and associates of Sarfaraz Mahal,

Shia Islam and politics

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19th-century Islam

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Awadh

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The New Cambridge History of Islam

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The New Cambridge History of Islam

Volume I of The New Cambridge History of Islam The New Cambridge History of Islam is a six volume history of Islam published by Cambridge University Press in 2010.[1] The general editor is Michael Cook. The history replaced the original Cambridge History of Islam which was published in 1970.[2] As well as being greatly expanded from the earlier history, which was of two volumes, the new history introduces more thematic sections and covers wider ground by, for instance, a detailed examination of Sufism. It also cautiously questions the narrative of the history of Islam believed by Muslims which it finds lacks reliable textual evidence for the earliest period.[3] Volumes Volume 1, The Formation of the Islamic World, Sixth to Eleventh Centuries. Edited by Chase F. Robinson, 2010. Volume 2, The Western Islamic World, Eleventh to Eighteenth Centuries. Edited by Maribel Fierro, 2010. Volume 3, The Eastern Islamic World, Eleventh to Eighteenth Centuries. Edited by David O. Morgan, Anthony Reid, 2010. Vo

History books about Islam

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Series of history books

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Cambridge University Press books

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Battle of Gawakuke

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Battle of Gawakuke

The Battle of Gawakuke was an engagement fought between the Sokoto Caliphate and the Gobir city-state at Gawakuke in northern Nigeria on 9 March 1836. The battle was a victory for Sokoto, and secured the Gobir kingdom's subordination to the caliphate. In 1836, the Gobir kingdom revolted against the powerful Sokoto Caliphate, which had ruled Gobir since its initial conquest in 1808. To crush the rebellion, Sokoto Sultan Muhammed Bello and several of his allies marched to meet the rebels at Gawakuke, in northern Gobir territory. Bello's soldiers routed the assembled insurgent army and killed Gobir Sultan Ali, before embarking on a murderous campaign throughout the Gobir kingdom, burning villages and slaughtering peasants. This battle was the last in a series of conflicts between Gobir and Sokoto that had lasted for nearly three decades. Muhammed Bello, the Sultan of Sokoto and commander of the army that defeated the rebels, died one year after the battle in 1837, at the age of 56. Origins The founder of the

Countries in precolonial Africa

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March 1836 events

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History of Islam

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Ghatafan

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Ghatafan

The Ghaṭafān (Arabic: غطفان‎) are a massive ancient Nejdi tribe north east of Medina and from them come the tribes of Banu Abs, Banu Dhubyan and Ashja'. They were one of the Arab tribes that interacted with Muhammad. They are notable for allying themselves with the Quraysh in the Battle of the Trench.[1] Origins and branches The Ghatafan were a Bedouin tribal grouping that inhabited the Wadi al-Rumma area of Najd between the Hejaz mountains and Jabal Shammar.[2] According to Arab genealogical tradition, the progenitor of the tribe was Ghaṭafān ibn Saʾd ibn Qays ʿAylān, making it a part of the larger Qays tribe.[2] The etymology or meaning of Ghatafan is not known.[3] The main branches of the Ghatafan were the following: The Banu Ashja, who inhabited the westernmost area of the Ghatafan's tribal territory.[2] The Banu Dhubyan, who were descendants of Dhubyān ibn Baghīd ibn Rayth ibn Ghaṭafān.[2] They inhabited the area east of the Banu Ashja and included the major subtribes of the Banu Murra, the Banu F

Tribes of Saudi Arabia

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Tribes of Arabia

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Descendants of Eber

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Hunat Hatun Complex

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Hunat Hatun Complex

Early in the 13th century, Kayqubad I, Sultan of the Anatolian Selçuks (1219–1237), captured the Alanya fortress (then called Kalon Oros, later renamed Ala'iyya) from its Armenian ruler, Kir Vart. One of the conditions of Vart’s surrender was that his daughter Hunat (“lady” in Persian) Mahperi Hatun would become the sultan’s wife. After her marriage, Lady Hunat (as she is redundantly called in English) converted to Islam and commissioned the Hunat Hatun Complex, made up of the Hunat Hatun Mosque, tomb, medrese, and hamam, which is still functioning and has separate facilities for men and women.[1] Note the complex is not in Alanya, but in Kayseri. Gallery Hunat Hatun Complex Front Hunat Hatun Complex Interior mosque Hunat Hatun Complex Interior mosque minber and mihrab Hunat Hatun Complex Interior mosque central dome Hunat Hatun Complex Mausoleum Hunat Hatun Complex Medrese References https://premiumtravel.net/turkey-cities/kayseri/ Location: 38°43′14″N 3

Seljuk mosques in Turkey

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Early Turkish Anatolia

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13th-century Islam

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Hikayat Abu Samah

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Hikayat Abu Samah

Hikayat Abu Samah is a Betawi literature. It is a script which adapted from Malaysian literature, an Islamic Legend. References

History of Islam

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Malay-language literature

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Jawi manuscripts

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Incidents during the Hajj

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Incidents during the Hajj

Plains of Arafat on the day of Hajj, c. 2003. There have been incidents during the Hajj', the Muslim pilgrimage to the city of Mecca, that have caused loss of life. Every follower of Islam is required to visit Mecca during the Hajj at least once in his or her lifetime, if able to do so; according to Islam, the pilgrimage is one of the Five Pillars of Islam. During the month of the Hajj, Mecca must cope with as many as three million pilgrims.[1] Plane travel makes Mecca and the Hajj more accessible to pilgrims from all over the world. As a consequence, the Hajj has become increasingly crowded. City officials are required to control large crowds and provide food, shelter, sanitation, and emergency services for millions. However, it has not always been possible to prevent incidents. Crushes and failures of crowd control Wikinews has related news: Hundreds dead in Hajj stampede Stoning of the devil, 2006 Sometimes the dense, surging troupes, trekking from one station of the pilgrimage to the next, cau

History of Mecca

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Human stampedes in Saudi Arabia

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History of Islam

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History of the Prophets and Kings

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History of the Prophets and Kings

The History of the Prophets and Kings (Arabic: تاريخ الرسل والملوك‎ Tārīkh al-Rusul wa al-Mulūk), more commonly known as Tarikh al-Tabari (تاريخ الطبري) or Tarikh-i Tabari (Persian: تاریخ طبری‎) is an Arabic-language historical chronicle written by the Persian[1] historian Muhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabari (838-923). It begins with the Creation to 915 AD, and contains detail concerning Muslim and Middle Eastern history. An al-Sila, appendix[2] or continuation,[3] was written by Abu Abdullah b. Ahmad b. Ja'far al-Farghani, a Turk student of al-Tabari.[4][5] Editions Various editions of the Annals include: An edition published under the editorship of M.J. de Goeje in three series comprising thirteen volumes, with two extra volumes containing indices, introduction and glossary (Leiden, 1879–1901). An edition published under the editorship of Muhammad Abu al-Fadl Ibrahim (1905-1981) in ten volumes (al-Qahira: Dar al-Ma'arif, 1960-1969.) A Persian digest of this work, made in 963 by the Samanid scholar al-Bal'ami

10th-century encyclopedias

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Universal history books

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Biographical dictionaries

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History of the Quran

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History of the Quran

The history of Quran deals with the timeline and origin of the Quran, the Islamic Holy Book and its written compilations into manuscripts. It spans several centuries, based on historical findings and forms an important part of early Islamic history. According to Muslim belief and Islamic scholarly accounts, the revelation of the Quran began in 610 A.D. when the angel Gabriel (Arabic: جبريل, Jibrīl or جبرائيل, Jibrāʾīl) appeared to Muhammad in the cave Hira near Mecca, reciting to him the first verses of Surah Al-Alaq. Throughout his life, Muslims believe that Muhammad continued to have revelations until before his death in 632.[1] The Quran as it is known in the present, was first compiled into book format by Zayd ibn Thabit and other scribes under the third caliph Uthman (r. 644–56).[2] For this reason, the Quran as it exists today is also known as the Uthmanic codex.[3] According to Professor Francis Edward Peters (1927), what was done to the Quran in the process seems to have been extremely conservative a

NPOV disputes from September 2016

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History of Islam

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Quran

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Islam in Palestine

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Islam in Palestine

Islam is a major religion in Palestine, being the religion of the majority of the Palestinian population. Muslims comprise 80-85% of the population of the West Bank, when including Israeli settlers,[1] and 99% of the population of the Gaza Strip.[2] Palestinian Muslims primarily practice Shafi'i Islam, which is a branch of Sunni Islam. History Early Islamization ʿUmar ibn al-Khattāb's empire at its peak, 644 Islam was brought to the region of Palestine during the Early Muslim conquests of the 7th century, when armies of the Rashidun Caliphate under the leadership of ʿUmar ibn al-Khattāb defeated the armies of Persia and the armies of the Byzantine Empire and conquered Persia, Mesopotamia, Shaam,[a] Egypt, North Africa and Spain.[6]. The Muslim Arab army attacked Jerusalem, held by the Byzantine Romans, in November, 636. For four months the siege continued. Ultimately, the Orthodox Patriarch of Jerusalem, Sophronius, agreed to surrender Jerusalem to Caliph Umar in person. Caliph Umar, then at Medina, ag

Muslim conquests

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Islamization

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7th century in the Umayyad Caliphate

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History of Islam in Africa

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History of Islam in Africa

The Mosque of the Companions, Massawa, reportedly Africa's oldest mosque[1] Africa was the first continent into which Islam spread from Southwest Asia, during the early 7th century CE. Almost one-third of the world's Muslim population resides in the continent. Muslims crossed current Djibouti and Somalia to seek refuge in present-day Eritrea and Ethiopia during the Hijrah (Arabic: هِـجْـرَة‎, 'Migration') to the Kingdom of Aksum.[2] Most Muslims in Africa are Sunni; the complexity of Islam in Africa is revealed in the various schools of thought, traditions, and voices in many African countries. The practice of Islam on the continent is not static and is constantly being reshaped by prevalent social, economic, and political conditions. Generally Islam in Africa often adapted to African cultural contexts and belief systems forming Africa's own orthodoxies. It was estimated in 2002 that Muslims constitute 48% of the population of Africa.[3] Islam has a large presence in North Africa, the Horn of Africa, Sahel

History of Africa

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History of Islam

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Islam by continent

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History of Islam in Bangladesh

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History of Islam in Bangladesh

Bangladesh is a Muslim majority nation and Islam is the state religion of the People's Republic of Bangladesh.[4][5] The Muslim population was approximately 152 million, constituting 90% of the total population as of 2011[6][7] and making Bangladesh the third-largest Muslim majority nation in the world after Indonesia and Pakistan. The majority of Bangladeshis are Sunni. They follow the Hanafi Islamic jurisprudence, but there is also an increasing numbers of the Ahle Hadith. Religion has always been a strong part of Bangladeshi identity, but the specific identity has varied at different times. Bangladesh although a developing country is one of the few secular Muslim majority countries in the world.[8] Islam was introduced to Bengal in at least 7th-8th century by the Arab and Persian missionaries and merchants.[9][10] Following the conquests of Muhammad bin Bakhtiyar Khalji and the establishment of the Delhi Sultanate, Indian Islamic missionaries achieved their greatest success in terms of successful dawah a

Accuracy disputes from February 2014

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NPOV disputes from March 2016

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History of Islam in Malaysia

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History of Islam in Malaysia

Putra Mosque in Putrajaya Malaysia is a multiconfessional country whose most professed religion is Islam. As of 2013, there were approximately 19.5 million Muslim adherents, or 61.3% of the population.[1] Islam in Malaysia is represented by the Shafi‘i version of Sunni theology and jurisprudence.[2][3] Islam was introduced by traders arriving from Arabia, China and the Indian subcontinent. It became firmly established in the 15th century. In Malaysia Constitution,Islam is granted as the "religion of the Federation" to symbolise its importance to Malaysian society. Malaysia is Islamic country.However, other religions can be practiced freely.[2][3] Various Islamic holidays such as Muhammad's birthday have been declared national holidays alongside Christmas, Chinese New Year and Deepavali. Background The draft Constitution of Malaysia did not specify an official religion. This move was supported by the rulers of the nine Malay states, who felt that it was sufficient that Islam was the official religion of e

History of Islam

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Malaysian people of Malay descent

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Islamic Golden Age

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Islamic Golden Age

Scholars at an Abbasid library, from the Maqamat of al-Hariri by Yahya ibn Mahmud al-Wasiti, Baghdad, 1237 CE The Islamic Golden Age was a period of cultural, economic and scientific flourishing in the history of Islam, traditionally dated from the 8th century to the 14th century.[1][2][3] This period is traditionally understood to have begun during the reign of the Abbasid caliph Harun al-Rashid (786 to 809) with the inauguration of the House of Wisdom in Baghdad, where scholars from various parts of the world with different cultural backgrounds were mandated to gather and translate all of the world's classical knowledge into the Arabic language.[4][5] This period is traditionally said to have ended with the collapse of the Abbasid caliphate due to Mongol invasions and the Siege of Baghdad in 1258 AD.[6] A few contemporary scholars place the end of the Islamic Golden Age as late as the end of 15th to 16th centuries.[1][2][3] History of the concepts Expansion of the Caliphates, 622–750.   Expansion unde

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10th-century Islam

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9th-century Islam

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Sword of Islam

topic

Sword of Islam

The Sword of Islam Mussolini with the Sword of Islam The Sword of Islam (Arabic: سيف الإسلام‎, translit. Sayf al-Islām) was a ceremonial melee weapon given in 1937 to Benito Mussolini, who was pronounced as the Protector of Islam (Arabic: حامي الإسلام‎, translit. Hāmī al-Islām). History In 1934, after the creation of Italian Libya, Mussolini adopted a policy for encouraging comparisons with Islam, calling the local population "Italian Muslims of the fourth shore of Italy", building or restoring mosques and Koranic schools, preparing service facilities for the pilgrims going to Mecca and even making a High School of Islamic Culture in Tripoli. Behind the apparent humanitarian intent, fascists and some sectors of the Islamic world were recognizing France and the United Kingdom as common enemies and Mussolini wanted to exploit this to his advantage.[1][2] These common interests were generated from the aversion to the agreements of the Treaty of Versailles of 1919, dominated by the United States, France, an

Lost works of art

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Swords

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List of extinct Shia sects

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List of extinct Shia sects

The following is a list of extinct sects of Shia Islam. These branches of Shia are thought no longer to have any living followers or practitioners. The sects were created around certain beliefs that were unorthodox or otherwise not held by the majority of Shia Muslims. Ghulat sects Bazighiyya– who believed that Ja'far al-Sadiq was God. Dhammiyya– who believed that Ali was God and Muhammad was his appointed Messenger and Prophet. Ghurabiyya– who believed the angel Gabriel was mistaken. Hurufiyya– who believed God is incarnated in every atom, reminiscent of the Alevi-Bektashism. Nuqtavites– who believed in a cyclical view of time, reminiscent of the Isma'ili Shia. Kaysanites– who believed in the Imamate of Muhammad ibn al-Hanafiyyah after the death of Husayn Ibn 'Ali Ibn abu Talib. Bayaniyya– the followers of Bayān al-Nahdi, who believed that Abu Hashim was a prophet and would return to rule the world as Mahdi. Bayān claimed prophethood for himself after the demise of Abu Hashim, as well.[1]:83

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Schisms in Islam

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Tasu'a

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Tasu'a

Tasu'a (Arabic: تاسوعاء‎, romanized: Tāsū‘ā’) is the ninth day of Muharram and the day before Ashura.[4] Several events occurred on this day, including: Shemr's entrance to Karbala, the granting of safe conduct for the children of Umm ul-Banin,[5] preparation for war; and Husayn ibn Ali and his companions were besieged by the enemy (as part of the Battle of Karbala).[6] The day is attributed to Abbas ibn Ali because of his actions as commander in the army of Husayn ibn Ali.[7] Etymology Tasu'a literally means ninth and in the Islamic calendar refers to the ninth day of Muharram.[8][9] Events of Tasu'a The following are the main events of Tasu'a: Shemr's entrance to Karbala In the forenoon of Tasu'a, Shemr, accompanied by a four thousand-man army, arrived at Karbala.[10][11][12] He brought a letter from Ubayd Allah ibn Ziyad to Umar ibn Sa'ad, telling him to take Bay'ah from Husayn or fight.[13][14][15] Safe conduct for the children of Umm ul-Banin Shemr was one of the tribesman of Umm ul-Banin. He was

Karbala

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Islam and violence

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Islam and violence

Mainstream Islamic law stipulates detailed regulations for the use of violence, including the use of violence within the family or household, the use of corporal and capital punishment, as well as how, when and against whom to wage war. Legal background Sharia or sharia law is the basic Islamic religious law derived from the religious precepts of Islam, particularly the Quran and the opinions and life example of Muhammad (Hadith and Sunnah) which are the primary sources of sharia.[1][2] For topics and issues not directly addressed in these primary sources, sharia is derived. The derivation differs between the various sects of Islam (Sunni and Shia are the majority), and various jurisprudence schools such as Hanafi, Maliki, Shafi'i, Hanbali and Jafari.[3][4] The sharia in these schools is derived hierarchically using one or more of the following guidelines: Ijma (usually the consensus of Muhammad's companions), Qiyas (analogy derived from the primary sources), Istihsan (ruling that serves the interest of I

Criticism of Islam

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Mad'an (slave)

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Mad'an (slave)

Mad'an (ميداس) was a slave of Muhammad mentioned in the Hadith.[1] He was an African slave given to Muhummad in 628AD by a man called Rifa'ah bin Zaid, from the Banu Ad-Dubaib. Mad'an was shot by an arrow in a place called Wadi al-Qura (Wadi al-'Ula[2]), 360km north of Medina, for stealing a cloak from the spoils of war at the Battle of Khaybar.[3] References The Translation of the Meanings of Summarized Sahih Muslim (Darussalam, 2000). Timothy Power, The Red Sea from Byzantium to the Caliphate: AD 500–1000(I.B.Tauris, 2012) p115. Sunan an-Nasa'i 3827.

History of Islam

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Islam and slavery

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Islam

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Sword of Islam (Mussolini)

topic

Sword of Islam (Mussolini)

The Sword of Islam Mussolini with the Sword of Islam The Sword of Islam (Arabic: سيف الإسلام‎, romanized: Sayf al-Islām) was a ceremonial melee weapon given in 1937 to Benito Mussolini, who was pronounced as the Protector of Islam (Arabic: حامي الإسلام‎, romanized: Hāmī al-Islām). History In 1934, after the creation of Italian Libya, Mussolini adopted a policy for encouraging comparisons with Islam, calling the local population "Italian Muslims of the fourth shore of Italy", building or restoring mosques and Koranic schools, preparing service facilities for the pilgrims going to Mecca and even making a High School of Islamic Culture in Tripoli. Behind the apparent humanitarian intent, fascists and some sectors of the Islamic world were recognizing France and the United Kingdom as common enemies and Mussolini wanted to exploit this to his advantage.[1][2] These common interests were generated from the aversion to the agreements of the Treaty of Versailles of 1919, dominated by the United States, France,

Fascism in the Arab world

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History of Islam

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Benito Mussolini

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Ashura

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Ashura

Yom Ashura or Ashura (Arabic: عاشوراء‎, romanized: ʻĀshūrā’ ) is the tenth day of Muharram, the first month in the Islamic calendar.[4] It marks the day that Husayn ibn Ali, the grandson of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, was martyred in the Battle of Karbala.[5] Ashura is a major holiday and occasion for pilgrimage and fasting in Shia Islam,[6] as well as a recommended but non-obligatory day of fasting in Sunni Islam.[7][8][9] Ashura has origins in Yom Kippur from Judaism.[10] Ashura marks the climax of the Remembrance of Muharram,[4] the annual commemoration of the death of Husayn and his family and supporters at the Battle of Karbala on 10 Muharram in the year 61 AH (in AHt: October 10, 680 CE).[11] Mourning for the incident began almost immediately after the battle. Popular elegies were written by poets to commemorate the Battle of Karbala during the Umayyad and Abbasid era, and the earliest public mourning rituals occurred in 963 CE during the Buyid dynasty.[12] In Afghanistan,[13] Iran,[14] Iraq,[15] Leb

Hussainia

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Muslim martyrs

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Maturidi

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Maturidi

Maturidiyya (Arabic: ماتريدي‎) is one of the main schools of Sunni Islam theology. It was formalized by Abu Mansur Al Maturidi and brought the beliefs already present among the majority of Sunnis under one school of systematic theology (kalam). It is considered one of the orthodox Sunni creeds alongside the Ash'ari school.[1] Māturīdism has been the predominant theological orientation among the Sunni Muslims of Persia prior to its conversion to Shiaism in the 16th century, Hanafis, and the Ahl al-Ray (people of reason) and enjoyed a preeminent status in the Ottoman Empire and Mughal India. Outside the old Ottoman and Mughal empires, the majority of Turkic tribes, Central Asian, and South Asian Muslims also believe in Maturidi theology. The Maturidi school prioritizes the traditions of Sufism and Persian- over Arabian interpretation of Islam.[2] Beliefs The Maturidi view holds that: All attributes of God are eternal and not separated from God.[3] Ethics have an objective existence and humans are capable

Sunni Islamic branches

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Kalam

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Ashʿari

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Ashʿari

Ashʿarism or Ashʿari theology ([1] Arabic: الأشعرية‎ al-ʾAšʿarīyya or الأشاعرة al-ʾAšāʿira) is the foremost theological school of Sunni Islam which established an orthodox dogmatic guideline[2] based on clerical authority, founded by the Arab theologian Abu al-Hasan al-Ashʿari (d. 936 / AH 324).[3] The disciples of the school are known as Ashʿarites, and the school is also referred to as the Ashʿarite school, which became the dominant theological school within Sunni Islam.[4][5] It is considered one of the orthodox schools of theology in Sunni Islam,[6] alongside the Maturidi school of theology.[7][8] Amongst the most famous Ashʿarites are Al-Ghazali, Izz al-Din ibn 'Abd al-Salam, Al-Suyuti, Ibn 'Asakir, and Al-Subki.[9] History Founder Abu al-Hasan al-Ashʿari was noted for his teachings on atomism,[10] among the earliest Islamic philosophies, and for al-Ashʿari this was the basis for propagating the view that God created every moment in time and every particle of matter. He nonetheless believed in free wi

Sunni Islamic branches

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Kalam

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2016 international conference on Sunni Islam in Grozny

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2016 international conference on Sunni Islam in Grozny

The 2016 conference on Sunni Islam in Grozny was convened to define the term "Ahl al-Sunnah wa al-Jama'ah",[8] i.e. who are "the people of Sunnah and majority Muslim community",[9][Note 1] and oppose Takfiri groups.[11] The conference was held in the Chechen Republic capital of Grozny[12] from 25–27 August 2016, sponsored by the president of Chechnya, Ramzan Kadyrov, and attended by approximately 200 Muslim scholars from 30 countries, especially from Russia, Egypt, Syria, Libya, Kuwait, Sudan, Jordan, etc. at the invitation of Yemeni Sufi preacher, Ali al-Jifri.[8][13][14] The conference was dedicated to the 65th anniversary of the birth of Kadyrov's father, Akhmad Kadyrov, the first President of Chechnya.[15][16] The conference was notable for excluding representatives of Wahhabi and Salafi movements, and for its definition of Sunni Muslims in the final communiqué of the conference that included Sufis, Ash’arites and Maturidis, but not Wahhabis or Salafis.[8][9] It identified Salafism/Wahhabism as a danger

Muslim Brotherhood

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Open letters

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Salafi movement

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Succession to Muhammad

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Succession to Muhammad

The succession to Muhammad is the central issue that split the Muslim community into several divisions in the first century of Islamic history, most prominent among these being the Shia and Sunni branches of Islam. Shia Islam holds that Ali ibn Abi Talib was the appointed successor to the Islamic prophet Muhammad as head of the community. Sunni Islam maintains Abu Bakr to be the first leader after Muhammad on the basis of election. The contrasting opinions regarding the succession are primarily based on differing interpretations of events in early Islamic history as well as of hadiths (sayings of Muhammad). Sunnis believe that Muhammad had no appointed successor and had instead intended that the Muslim community choose a leader from among themselves. They accept the rule of Abu Bakr, who was elected at Saqifah, and that of his successors, who are together termed the Rashidun Caliphs. Conversely, Shi'ites believe that Ali had previously been nominated by Muhammad as heir, most notably during the Event of Ghad

632 in Asia

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632

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History of Islam

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Saqifah

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Saqifah

Saqifah Bani Sa'idah (Arabic: سقيفة بني ساعدة‎, romanized: Saqīfat Banī Sā'idah), commonly known as simply Saqifah (Arabic: السقيفة‎, romanized: Saqīfah), was a roofed building in Medina used by the Banu Sa'idah clan of the Banu Khazraj tribe. Saqifah is significant as the site where, after Muhammad's death, some of his companions gathered and pledged allegiance to Abu Bakr, electing him as the first Caliph. Gathering at Saqifah A modern view of the approximate area where the gathering at Saqifah occurred During Muhammad's lifetime, the Muslims in Medina were divided into two groups; the Muhajirun, who had converted to Islam in Mecca and migrated to Medina with Muhammad, and the Ansar, who were originally from Medina and had invited Muhammad to govern their city.[1] In the immediate aftermath of the death of Muhammad in 632, a gathering of the Ansar took place in the Saqifah (courtyard) of the Banu Sa'ida clan.[2] The conventional wisdom of historians, as well as the general belief at the time, was that

History of Islam

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7th-century Islam

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Muhammad

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History of the Hajj

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History of the Hajj

The Kaaba in Mecca is the destination of pilgrimage for the Muslims Muslim pilgrims of the Hajj. The History of the Hajj is not clear as there is no evidence of its existence in its current practice until the start of islam in the mid 7th century. Islamic writers claim it started from the time of Abraham through the establishment of the Islamic Hajj by Islamic prophet Muhammad, to the present-day hajj where millions of Muslims perform their pilgrimage annually. In Islamic tradition, pilgrimage was introduced during the time of prophet Ibrahim (Abraham). Upon God's command, he built Kaaba which became the destination of pilgrimage. For the pagan Arabs in the Pre-Islamic Arabia, Kaaba was still the center of their worshiping. The present pattern of the Islamic Hajj was established by Prophet Muhammad, around 632 CE, who made reforms to the pre-Islamic pilgrimage of the pagan Arabs. During the medieval times, pilgrims would gather in chief cities like Basra, Damascus, and Cairo to go to Mecca in groups and

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Hajj

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Zawaya

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Zawaya

The Zawaya are tribes in the southern Sahara who have traditionally followed a deeply religious way of life. They accepted a subordinate position to the warrior tribes, whether Arab or Berber, who had little interest in Islam. The Zawaya introduced Sufi brotherhoods to the black populations south of the Sahara. The jihad movements of the Fula people in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries have their origins with the Zawaya. Today the Zawaya are one of the two noble castes of Mauritania. Background The Zawaya[a] were nomadic tribes from the arid lands to the north and east of the Senegal River in West Africa.[2] Their religious beliefs may possibly be traced back to the eleventh century Almoravid movement, although their generally more passive attitude is in contrast to that of the militant Almoravids.[3] They gave great importance to teaching the Islamic religious sciences and to reciting the Quran.[4] The Zawaya attempted to avoid conflict with the stronger warrior groups by renouncing arms and paying t

Mauritanian Moors

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History of Mauritania

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Berbers in Mauritania

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Catholic Church and Islam

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Catholic Church and Islam

Relations between the Catholic Church and Islam deals with the current attitude of the Catholic Church towards Islam and Muslims, as well as the attitude of Islam towards the Catholic Church and Catholics, and notable changes in the relationship since 20th century. Second Vatican Council and Nostra aetate The question of Islam was not on the agenda when Nostra aetate was first drafted, or even at the opening of the Second Vatican Council. However, as in the case of the question of Judaism, several events came together again to prompt a consideration of Islam. By the time of the Second Session of the Council in 1963 reservations began to be raised by bishops of the Middle East about the inclusion of this question. The position was taken that either the question will not be raised at all, or if it were raised, some mention of the Muslims should be made. Melkite patriarch Maximos IV was among those pushing for this latter position. Early in 1964 Cardinal Bea notified Cardinal Cicognani, President of the Counc

History of Islam

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History of the Catholic Church

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Eid al-Ghadir

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Eid al-Ghadir

Eid (celebration) Ghadir-Khum Eid al-Ghadir (Arabic: عید الغدیر) is a Shia feast, and is considered to be among the "significant" feasts of Shia Islam. The Eid is held on 18 Dhu Al-Hijjah at the time when the Islamic prophet Muhammad (following instruction from Allah) was said to have appointed Ali ibn Abi Talib as his successor. According to hadiths, this Eid has been named "Eid-Allah al-Akbar" (i.e. the greatest divine Eid),[5] "Eid Ahl al-Bayt Muhammad"[6][7] and Ashraf al-A'yaad (i.e. the supreme Eid).[8][9] This feast does not have mention in the Quran or the Sunnah, it was known in its early beginnings in 352 AH in Iraq, and in the days of Moez al-Dawla Ali ibn Buwayh [5]. Religious background Ten years after the migration (Hijrah), Muhammad, the founder of Islam, ordered his followers to call upon people everywhere to join him in his last pilgrimage. Islamic scholars believe more than seventy thousand people followed Muhammad on his way to Mecca, where, on the fourth day of the month of Dhu'l-Hijja

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Event of Ghadir Khumm

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Event of Ghadir Khumm

The event of Ghadir Khumm (Arabic: حديث الغدير; Persian: رویداد غدیر خم) refers to a sermon delivered by the Islamic prophet Muhammad shortly before his death in 632 CE. According to Shia traditions, in the sermon, attended by over one hundred thousand people,[4] Muhammad announced Ali ibn Abi Talib as his successor. After that announcement, the final verse of the Quran was revealed, proclaiming the perfection of the religion of Islam. The day's anniversary in the Islamic calendar (18 Dhu al-Hijjah) is celebrated by Muslims (primarily Shia Muslims) as Eid al-Ghadir.[5] The event of Ghadir Khumm occurred while the Muslims were returning from the Farewell Pilgrimage. A verse of the Quran was revealed instructing Muhammad to deliver an important message. The Muslims were gathered and Muhammad delivered a lengthy sermon. The speech included the famous statement by Muhammad that "to whomsoever I am Mawla, Ali is also their Mawla;" According to Ahmad al-Tabarsi's transcript, Muhammad also described Ali with the le

Shia days of remembrance

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7th-century Islam

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Abu Muhammad al-Hasan ibn Musa al-Nawbakhti

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Abu Muhammad al-Hasan ibn Musa al-Nawbakhti

Abū Muḥammad al-Ḥasan b Mūsā an-Nawbakhtī (الحسن بن موسى النوبختي; born late 9th century and died between 912 and 922) was a Persian and leading Shī'ī theologian and philosopher in the first half of the 10th century.[1][2] [3] The Nawbakhtī family boasted a number of scholars famous at the Abbāsid court of Hārūn al-Rashīd. Al-Ḥasan ibn Mūsa is best known for his book about the Shi'a sects titled Firaq al-Shi'a. Life Abū Muḥammad al-Ḥasan ibn Mūsa al-Nawbakhti was the nephew of the theologian philosopher Abū Sahl ibn Nawbakht. Among his fellow translators of books of philosophy were Abū 'Uthmān al-Dimashqi, Isḥāq ibn Ḥunayn, and Thābit ibn Qurra. It was claimed al-Ḥasan ibn Mūsa was both Muʿtazila and Shī’a for the Nawbakht family were known followers of ‘Alī.[4] He transcribed a large number of books and wrote books on theology, philosophy and other topics. His book Firaq aš-šī'a (The sects of Shi'a)[5] is the earliest surviving complete work on the Shiite sects, and the oldest text from an imamitic perspec

Scholars of the Abbasid Caliphate

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9th-century scholars

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Abbasid scholars

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Abu Sahl Isma'il ibn Ali al-Nawbakhti

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Abu Sahl Isma'il ibn Ali al-Nawbakhti

Ismā’īl ibn ‘Alī, Abū Sahl al-Nawbakhtī[n 1] was the great scholar of the Imamah, and the uncle of Abu Muhammad al-Hasan ibn Musa al-Nawbakhti. Abū Sahl died in 923.[1][2][3] Life Abū Sahl Ismā’īl ibn ‘Alī ibn Nawbakht was one of the great men of the Shi‘ah. Abū al-Ḥusayn al-Nāshī said that he was his teacher. He was a virtuous and learned theologian, who presided over a group of theologians. He had an idea about the qā’im[n 2] of the family of Muḥammad which no one had before him.[n 3] He used to say: “I say to you the [lawful] imam was Muḥammad ibn al-Ḥasan[n 4] and, although he died hidden, there has arisen in the cause[n 5] [4] during the concealment his son, and so will his son’s issue be concealed, until God consummates his dominion by causing him to appear.” Abū Ja‘far Muḥammad ibn ‘Alī al-Shalmaghānī, called Ibn Abī al-‘Azāqir (d. 934), summoned him to opposition, promising miracles and supernatural visions. Abū Sahl had a bare spot on his forehead like baldness, so he sent the messenger with this r

Scholars of the Abbasid Caliphate

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10th-century scholars

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923 deaths

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Abu Ali al-Farisi

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Abu Ali al-Farisi

Abū ‘Alī al-Fārisī (Arabic: الفارسى ابو على‎); surnamed Abū Alī al Ḥasan Aḥmad Abd al-Ghaffār Ibn Muḥammad ibn Sulaimān ibn Abān al-Fārisī (901 – 987) [n 2]; was a leading Arab[2] or Persian[3] grammarian of the school of al-Baṣrah.[4] He lived in Baghdād and later served at the courts of Sayf al-Dawla at Aleppo and ‘Aḍud al-Dawlah at Shiraz.[5] His nephew was Abi al-Hussein Muhammad Bin al-Hassan Bin Abd al-Wareth al-Faressi al-Nawawi, who instructed the celebrated theorist al-Jurjānī on al-Fārisī's grammatical treatise, the Idah. Life[6] Abū ‘Ali al-Ḥasan ibn Ahmad ibn al-Ghaffār al-Fārisī, was known as Abū Alī, or sometimes al-Fasawī. He was born in the town of Fasa in Fars province in 901.[3] He was born to a Persian father and an Arab mother.[3][2] In 919 he went to Baghdād to study. He travelled widely and spent a period with Sayf ad-Dawlah ibn Hamdān the Hamdanid ruler at Aleppo in 952/953 where he held conferences with the famous court poet al-Mutanabbi (915-965). He continued on to Fars, and gained

Iranian people of Arab descent

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Arab people of Iranian descent

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Medieval Persian people

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Sunni Revival

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Sunni Revival

The Sunni Revival was a period in Islamic history marked by the revival of the political fortunes of Sunni Islam, a renewed interest in Sunni law and theology and the spread of new styles in art and architecture. Conventionally, the revival lasted from 1055 until 1258.[1] Richard Bulliet has proposed that the term "recentering" better describes the period than "revival" or "renaissance".[2] The period is characterized as much by developments within Sunnism as by Sunni relations with Shia Islam. In particular, it was a period homogenization of Sunnism as scholars and leaders strove for ijmāʿ (consensus).[2] Timing The Sunni Revival followed a period of Shia ascendancy, sometimes called the "Shia Century", under the Fatimid dynasty in Africa, Palestine and parts of Arabia; the Hamdanid dynasty in Syria; and the Buyid dynasty in Iraq and Iran. During this period, Shia polities controlled most of the Islamic world, including its core areas. The Abbasid Caliph, the supreme Sunni leader, was under the control of

History of Islam

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Historical eras

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Sunni Islam

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