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Alenia Aermacchi M-346 Master

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Alenia Aermacchi M-346 Master

The Alenia Aermacchi M-346 Master is a military twin-engine transonic trainer aircraft. Originally co-developed with Yakovlev as the Yak/AEM-130, the partnership was dissolved in 2000 and Alenia Aermacchi proceeded to separately develop the M-346 Master, while Yakolev continued work on the Yakovlev Yak-130. The first flight of the M-346 was performed in 2004. The type is currently operated by the air forces of Italy, Israel, Singapore, and Poland. Since 2016 the manufacturer became Leonardo-Finmeccanica as Alenia Aermacchi merged into the new Finmeccanica, finally rebranded as Leonardo in 2017.[2] Development In 1992, Aermacchi signed a cooperation agreement with Yakovlev to provide financial and technical support for the new trainer that the firm had been developing since 1991 for the Russian Air Force in competition with the Mikoyan MiG-AT. Aermacchi also gained the right to modify and market the aircraft for the Western market.[3] The resulting aircraft first flew in 1996 and was brought to Italy the fol ...more...

Lists of aircraft

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Alenia aircraft

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Mid-wing aircraft

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Alekseyev I-21

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Alekseyev I-21

The Alekseyev I-21 was a Soviet twin-engined jet fighter, built in the late 1940s. Two prototypes were constructed with the designation of I-211, of which one was converted into the I-215 with more powerful engines. A third aircraft was built to evaluate the bicycle landing gear arrangement for use in other aircraft. The fighter was not accepted for production as it was inferior to the swept-wing fighters like the Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-15. Development After working as Lavochkin's right-hand man during World War II, Semyon Alekseyev was appointed as Chief Designer of OKB-21 (design bureau) at Gor'kiy. The Council of the People's Commissars directed Alekseyev and other designers to develop jet fighters using more powerful engines than the captured German Jumo 004 and the BMW 003 and their Soviet-built copies. The result of Alekseyev's efforts was the I-21 (Russian: istrebitel (fighter)), which was planned to be produced in several variants.[1] The I-21 was a twin-engined, all-metal, single-seat jet fighter, w ...more...

Aircraft first flown in 1947

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Abandoned military aircraft projects of the Sov...

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Antonov An-71

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Antonov An-71

The Antonov An-71 (NATO reporting name: Madcap) was a Soviet AWACS aircraft intended for use with VVS-FA (Fighter Bomber) forces of the Soviet Air Force, developed from the An-72 transport. Only three prototypes were built before the program was cancelled. Background: Soviet Air Force AWACS doctrine Prior to the fall of the Soviet Union, the Air Force was divided into three aircraft based groups of units. They were the VVS-DA (Voenno-Vozdushnye Sily Dal'naya Aviatsiya) or Long Range Aviation (Bombers), the VVS-FA (Voenno-Vozdushnye Sily Frontovaya Aviatsiya) or Frontal Aviation (Fighters, Fighter Bombers and Attack aircraft), and the VVS-VTA (Voenno-Vozdushnye Sily Voenno-Transportnaya Aviatsiya) or Military Transport Aviation. The PVO (Voyska protivovozdushnoy oborony or Voyska PVO) which was the primary fighter / interceptor and surface-based defensive force was not part of the VVS; as a result, the A-50 Mainstay AWACS aircraft and its predecessor the Tu-126 Moss served exclusively with the Voyska PVO and ...more...

Engine-over-wing aircraft

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Aircraft first flown in 1985

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Ilyushin Il-54

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Ilyushin Il-54

The Il-54 was a transonic bomber developed in the USSR in the 1950s. Only two examples were built before the project was abandoned. Design and development The Council of Ministers issued a directive to OKB-115, for a transonic bomber prototype to be submitted for State Acceptance Trials in July 1954. The design of this bomber went through several stages before settling on the final configuration.[1] The Il-54, as built, had a very thin 45 degree swept wing with anhedral, which was shoulder-mounted on the fuselage. The Lyulka AL-7 engines were housed in slim, pylon mounted, pods at approximately 1/3 span. Because the wings and engine nacelles were too small to house a conventional undercarriage, the Il-54 used a bicycle undercarriage arrangement, with nose and main gear units on the centreline of the aircraft, at each end of the bomb bay. This arrangement meant a conventional rotating takeoff would be impossible. To enable the Il-54 to take off, in a reasonable runway length, the main gear knelt and the nos ...more...

Aircraft first flown in 1955

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Abandoned military aircraft projects of the Sov...

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British Aerospace 125

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British Aerospace 125

The British Aerospace 125 is a twinjet mid-size business jet. Originally developed by de Havilland and initially designated as the DH125 Jet Dragon, it entered production as the Hawker Siddeley HS.125, which was the designation used until 1977. Later on, more recent variants of the type were marketed as the Hawker 800. The type proved quite popular overseas; more than 60% of the total sales for the aircraft were to North American customers.[5] It was also used by the Royal Air Force as a navigation trainer, as the Hawker Siddeley Dominie T1, and was operated by the United States Air Force as a calibration aircraft, under the designation C-29. Development Origins One of the prototypes on display at the 1962 Farnborough Air Show In 1961, de Havilland began work upon a small business jet, then known as the DH.125 Jet Dragon, which was intended to replace the piston engined de Havilland Dove, a successful business aircraft and light transport. Prior to the start of the project, de Havilland had determined t ...more...

Aviation accidents and incidents in 2015

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Filmed accidental deaths

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EngvarB from July 2017

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Hispano HA-200

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Hispano HA-200

The Hispano HA-200 Saeta was a 1950s Spanish two-seat advanced jet trainer produced by Hispano Aviación. It was later developed into the Hispano Aviación Ha-220 "Super Saeta" which was given an attack capability. Design and development The HA-200 Saeta (Arrow) was the first Spanish turbojet aircraft. It was designed by Willy Messerschmitt as the earlier piston-powered trainer HA-100 Triana. The HA-200 was a low-winged monoplane of all metal construction, with a tricycle undercarriage. It was powered by two Turbomeca Marboré mounted side by-side in the forward fuselage and fed from an intake in the nose, exhausting from nozzles just aft of the wing trailing edge. The crew of two was accommodated in tandem in a pressurized cockpit, the first to be Spanish built and designed.[1] The prototype first flew on 12 August 1955,[2] and the first production aircraft flew in October 1962. The HA-200A aircraft were delivered to the Spanish Air Force with the designation E.14. A single seat version (the HA-220) for the ...more...

Aircraft first flown in 1955

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Hispano aircraft

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McDonnell F2H Banshee

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McDonnell F2H Banshee

The McDonnell F2H Banshee was a single-seat carrier-based jet fighter aircraft deployed by the United States Navy and United States Marine Corps from 1948 to 1961. It was one of the primary American fighters used during the Korean War and was the only jet-powered fighter ever deployed by the Royal Canadian Navy,[1] serving the RCN from 1955 until 1962. The aircraft's name is derived from the banshee of Irish mythology. Design and development The Banshee was a development of the FH Phantom, although it was being planned before the Phantom went into production. McDonnell engineers originally intended the aircraft to be a modified Phantom that shared many parts with the earlier aircraft, but it soon became clear that the need for heavier armament, greater internal fuel capacity, and other improvements would make the idea unfeasible.[2] The new aircraft would use much larger and more powerful engines, a pair of newly developed Westinghouse J34 turbojets, raising thrust from the J30's 1,600 lbf (7 kN) to 3,000  ...more...

Aircraft first flown in 1947

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Cruciform tail aircraft

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Heinkel He 280

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Heinkel He 280

The Heinkel He 280 was the first turbojet-powered fighter aircraft in the world. It was inspired by Ernst Heinkel's emphasis on research into high-speed flight and built on the company's experience with the He 178 jet prototype. A combination of technical and political factors led to it being passed over in favor of the Messerschmitt Me 262. Only nine were built and none reached operational status. Development The Heinkel company began the He 280 project on its own initiative after the He 178 had been met with indifference from the Reichsluftfahrtministerium (German, Reich Aviation Ministry, RLM). The head designer was Robert Lusser, who began the project under the designation He 180 in late 1939.[1] It had a typical Heinkel fighter fuselage, elliptically-shaped wings and a dihedralled tailplane with twin fins and rudders. The landing gear was of the retractable tricycle type with very little ground clearance.[2] This arrangement was considered too frail for the grass or dirt airfields of the era; however, ...more...

Aircraft first flown in 1940

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World War II jet aircraft of Germany

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Fairchild T-46

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Fairchild T-46

The Fairchild T-46 (nicknamed the "Eaglet") was an American light jet trainer aircraft of the 1980s. It was cancelled in 1986 with only three aircraft being produced. Design and development The United States Air Force (USAF) launched its Next Generation Trainer (NGT) program to replace the Cessna T-37 Tweet primary trainer in 1981.[1] Fairchild-Republic submitted a shoulder-winged monoplane with a twin tail, powered by two Garrett F109 turbofans and with pilot and instructor sitting side by side.[2] Part of the rationale was an expectation of increasing levels of general aviation traffic. A pressurized trainer would permit training at higher altitude, leading to fewer restrictions on the new pilots. In order to validate the proposed aircraft's design, and to explore its flight handling characteristics, Fairchild Republic contracted with Ames Industries of Bohemia, New York to build a flyable 62% scale version. Burt Rutan's Rutan Aircraft Factory (RAF) in Mojave, California was contracted to perform the fli ...more...

Aircraft first flown in 1985

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Shoulder-wing aircraft

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Ikarus 451

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Ikarus 451

Ikarus S-451 The Ikarus 451 is a family of research aircraft designs built in Yugoslavia in the 1950s, all sharing the same basic airframe, but differing in powerplants and cockpit arrangements. One member of the family Ikarus 451M became the first domestically-built jet aircraft to fly in Yugoslavia, on 25 October 1952.[1] Design and development To research prone-pilot cockpit arrangements and controls, the Government Aircraft Factories developed the Ikarus 232 Pionir, a small twin-engined low-wing monoplane, powered by 2x 48 kW (65 hp) Walter Mikron III piston engines.[1] An enlarged version of the Pionir was developed as the Type 451, powered by 2x 120 kW (160 hp) Walter Minor 6-III piston engines.[1] The first aircraft built under this designation was a propeller-driven aircraft that accommodated the pilot in prone position. It was an otherwise conventional low-wing monoplane with retractable tailwheel undercarriage, the main units of which retracted backwards into the engine nacelles mounted below th ...more...

Aircraft first flown in 1952

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Gloster Meteor

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Gloster Meteor

The Gloster Meteor was the first British jet fighter and the Allies' only jet aircraft to achieve combat operations during the Second World War. The Meteor's development was heavily reliant on its ground-breaking turbojet engines, pioneered by Sir Frank Whittle and his company, Power Jets Ltd. Development of the aircraft began in 1940, although work on the engines had been under way since 1936. The Meteor first flew in 1943 and commenced operations on 27 July 1944 with No. 616 Squadron RAF. The Meteor was not a sophisticated aircraft in its aerodynamics, but proved to be a successful combat fighter. Gloster's 1946 civil Meteor F.4 demonstrator G-AIDC was the first civilian-registered jet aircraft in the world.[1] Several major variants of the Meteor incorporated technological advances during the 1940s and 1950s. Thousands of Meteors were built to fly with the RAF and other air forces and remained in use for several decades. The Meteor saw limited action in the Second World War. Meteors of the Royal Australia ...more...

Aircraft first flown in 1943

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Cruciform tail aircraft

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Sukhoi Su-15 (1949)

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Sukhoi Su-15 (1949)

The Sukhoi Su-15 (Aircraft P) was a prototype Soviet all-weather interceptor which never reached production. The name was later reused for an entirely different 1960s interceptor, see Sukhoi Su-15. Development The Su-15 was an early attempt at an all-weather jet-powered interceptor. Its development was ordered by the Soviet government in March 1947, with the approval of the Sukhoi Design Bureau’s preliminary midwing design featuring a pressurized cabin, radar, swept wings and tandem engines, similar to that already attempted by the Lavochkin La-200 and Mikoyan-Gurevich I-320. Per TsAGI, the sweep of the wings was selected to be 35 degrees. The first prototype was completed on 25 October 1948 — only four months after production had started. The Su-15 first flew on 11 January 1949 piloted by Sukhoi test pilot G. M. Shiyanov. In testing, Su-15 reached 1032 km/h (557 knots, 641 mph; Mach 0.888) at 4,550 metres (14,930 ft) and 985 km/h (532 knots, 612 mph; Mach 0.926) at 10,950 metres (35,930 ft), but experience ...more...

Aircraft first flown in 1949

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Mitsubishi T-2

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Mitsubishi T-2

The Mitsubishi T-2 was a jet trainer aircraft used by the Japan Air Self-Defense Force. By March 2006, all T-2s had been retired. The F-2 succeeded the T-2 for training mission. Development Post-World War II rendered Japan without a modern jet fighter for defensive purposes. Two decades after World War II had concluded, Japanese Air Self-Defense Force (JASDF) began to consider the development of a supersonic jet tentatively named "T-X." Japan had found that the subsonic Fuji T-1 jet trainer did not adequately prepare trainee pilots for more complex and difficultly handling front line Mach 2 fighters such as the Lockheed F-104J Starfighter and McDonnell Douglas F-4EJ Phantom and so, in 1964-65, began studies for a new trainer, the T-X, which it was hoped would also form the basis for a future single-seat attack aircraft, the SF-X.[1] Consideration was also given to acquiring existing foreign aircraft instead of developing a new aircraft, with the United States offering the Northrop T-38 Talon, and the An ...more...

Aircraft first flown in 1971

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Mitsubishi Heavy Industries aircraft

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Nanchang Q-5

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Nanchang Q-5

The Nanchang Q-5 (Chinese: 强-5; pinyin: Qiang-5; NATO reporting name: Fantan), also known as the A-5 in its export versions, is a Chinese-built jet ground-attack aircraft capable of supersonic speed in level flight, which is similar to its predecessor Soviet MiG-19. However, the aircraft is predominantly flown at subsonic speeds due to its primary role being close air support. Design and development The PRC was an enthusiastic user of the MiG-19, which it manufactured locally as the Shenyang J-6 from 1958. In August 1958 the People's Liberation Army requested development of a jet attack aircraft for the air support role. Lu Xiaopeng was appointed chief designer of this project. Lu also designed the J-12 fighter jet.[2] Although based on the MiG-19, the new design, designated Qiangjiji-5 (fifth attack aircraft design), had a longer fuselage, area ruled to reduce transonic drag and accommodate a 4 m (13-ft) long internal weapons bay.[3] The air intakes were moved to the fuselage sides to make space in the no ...more...

Aircraft first flown in 1965

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Mid-wing aircraft

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Morane-Saulnier MS.755 Fleuret

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Morane-Saulnier MS.755 Fleuret

The Morane-Saulnier MS.755 Fleuret was a prototype French two-seat jet trainer designed and built by Morane-Saulnier. It failed to gain any orders but was developed into the larger four-seat MS.760 Paris.[1] Development The Fleuret was designed and built to compete in an order for the French Air Force for a two-seat jet trainer.[2] It was a side-by-side low mid-wing cantilever monoplane with a T-tail and powered by two 800 lbf (3.6kn) Turbomeca Marboré II turbojets.[1] The prototype with French test registration F-ZWRS first flew on 29 January 1953.[1] The aircraft was not ordered with the Air Force buying the Fouga Magister instead and only one Fleuret was built.[2] The Fleuret II an enlarged four-seat development was designed and produced as the MS.760 Paris.[1] Indian Air Force Tests In March 1954, the sole prototype MS.755 was disassembled, crated and shipped to Begumpet Air Force Station, India, for tropical weather and trainer-suitability trials with the Indian Air Force. The audio memoirs of IAF ...more...

Aircraft first flown in 1953

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Sukhoi Su-15

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Sukhoi Su-15

The Sukhoi Su-15 (NATO reporting name: Flagon) is a twinjet supersonic interceptor aircraft developed by the Soviet Union. It entered service in 1965 and remained one of the front-line designs into the 1990s.[1] The Su-15 was designed to replace the Sukhoi Su-11 and Sukhoi Su-9, which were becoming obsolete as NATO introduced newer and more capable strategic bombers. Development Recognizing the limitations of the earlier Su-9 and Su-11 in intercepting the new Boeing B-52 Stratofortress, particularly in terms of radar and aircraft performance, the Sukhoi OKB quickly began the development of a heavily revised and more capable aircraft. A variety of development aircraft evolved, including the Sukhoi T-49, which shared the fuselage of the Su-9 (including its single engine), but used cheek-mounted intakes to leave the nose clear for a large radome for the RP-22 Oryol-D ("Eagle") radar (NATO "Skip Spin"), and the T-5, essentially a heavily modified Su-11 with a widened rear fuselage containing two Tumansky R-11 e ...more...

Aircraft first flown in 1962

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Delta-wing aircraft

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Sukhoi Su-28

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Sukhoi Su-28

The Sukhoi Su-28 is a downgraded variant of the Su-25UB/Su-25T, with reductions in avionics and aircraft systems, together with the elimination of all weapon-carrying capability. The Su-28 trainer is intended for technical skill, general flight and formation flying training. It is also used as an aerobatic aircraft Design and development The Su-28 is a highly maneuverable and robust aircraft with the ability to perform take-off and landing with only one of its two engines running. The aircraft's engines can also run on a diesel based fuel as opposed to more traditional aviation fuel. Like the MiG-29, it also has the ability to operate from unpaved runways while maintaining high reliability and a low maintenance requirement. In addition, the Su-28 can withstand heavy landings, allowing it to be more forgiving in the training role. Range can be extended by up to four PTB-800 drop tanks, each of 800 L capacity. Differences between the Su-28 and its parent Su-25UB model include the absence of targeting systems ...more...

Aircraft first flown in 1987

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Mikoyan MiG-AT

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Mikoyan MiG-AT

The Mikoyan MiG-AT (Russian: МиГ-АТ) is a Russian advanced trainer and light attack aircraft that was intended to replace the Aero L-29 and L-39 of the Russian Air Force. Designed by the Mikoyan Design Bureau and built by the Moscow Aircraft Production Association, the MiG-AT made its first flight in March 1996. It is the first joint aircraft development programme between Russia and France and the first military collaborative project between Russia and the West to reach first flight.[1] The design lost out to the Yakovlev Yak-130 in 2002 in the competition for a government contract, and had also been unsuccessfully marketed to countries such as India, Greece, and those of the Commonwealth of Independent States.[1][4] Design and development The design effort on the MiG-AT began when Soviet authorities looked to replace the country's ageing fleet of Aero L-29 and L-39 military trainer aircraft. The project competed with proposals from the design bureaux of Sukhoi, Myasishchev and Yakovlev; in 1992, the design ...more...

Aircraft first flown in 1996

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Morane-Saulnier MS.760 Paris

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Morane-Saulnier MS.760 Paris

The Morane-Saulnier MS.760 Paris is a French four-seat jet trainer and liaison aircraft designed and manufactured by Morane-Saulnier. The Paris was based upon an earlier proposed trainer aircraft, the MS.755 Fleuret. Following the failure of the French Air Force to select the Fleuret, Morane-Saulnier opted to develop the design into a liaison aircraft and compact business jet. The primary difference between the two designs was the altered seating arrangement, the original side-by-side seating two-seat cockpit was modified to allow for the addition of another row of two seats to accommodate passengers. The Paris retained the flight characteristics of the Fleuret along with the option for installing armaments, which maintained its potential for use as a military trainer as well for civil aviation. On 29 July 1954, the prototype performed the type's maiden flight. The primary operator of the Paris was the French air services, who used the type for liaison purposes between 1959 and 1997. During 1955, a short-li ...more...

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Aircraft first flown in 1954

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T-tail aircraft

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SNCAC NC.1070

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SNCAC NC.1070

The SNCAC NC.1070 was a piston engined attack and torpedo bomber designed and built in France shortly after World War II. The second prototype, the NC1071, was the first French multi-jet turbine powered aircraft. Design and development Built shortly after World War II, the NC.1070 was a contemporary of the Nord 1500 Noréclair and was intended to take a similar rôle. It was a twin engine aircraft of unconventional layout with twin booms, twin fins and a double horizontal tail. The central fuselage was not a pod, though short compared with the wing span, and extended beyond the tail.[1] The NC.1070 was powered by a pair of SNECMA 14R fourteen-cylinder, two-row, air-cooled radial engines mounted well ahead of the wing. The fairings behind them extended around the wings and beyond as booms; at their rear, rectangular fixed tailplanes linked the booms to the fuselage. A straight tapered fin and rudder with trim tabs was mounted at the end of each boom with a constant chord, round tipped main tailplane mounted o ...more...

Twin-engined tractor aircraft

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Aircraft first flown in 1947

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Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-25

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Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-25

The Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-25 (Russian: Микоян и Гуревич МиГ-25; NATO reporting name: Foxbat) is a supersonic interceptor and reconnaissance aircraft that was among the fastest military aircraft to enter service. It was designed by the Soviet Union's Mikoyan-Gurevich bureau and is one of the few combat aircraft built primarily using stainless steel. It was the last plane designed by Mikhail Gurevich before his retirement.[2] The first prototype flew in 1964, and the aircraft entered service in 1970. It has an operational top speed of Mach 2.83 (Mach 3.2 is possible but at risk of significant damage to the engines) and features a powerful radar and four air-to-air missiles. When first seen in reconnaissance photography, the large wing suggested an enormous and highly maneuverable fighter, at a time when U.S. design theories were also evolving towards higher maneuverability due to combat performance in the Vietnam War. The appearance of the MiG-25 sparked serious concern in the West and prompted dramatic increas ...more...

Mikoyan aircraft

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Aircraft first flown in 1964

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Shenyang J-15

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Shenyang J-15

The Shenyang J-15 (Chinese: 歼-15) NATO reporting name: Flanker-X2 , also known as Flying Shark (Chinese: 飞鲨; pinyin: Fēishā), is a 4th generation[4], twin-jet, all-weather, carrier-based fighter aircraft in development by the Shenyang Aircraft Corporation and the 601 Institute for the Chinese People's Liberation Army Navy's aircraft carriers. Rumors initially claimed the aircraft was to be a semi-stealth variant, yet later reports indicate the aircraft is an unlicensed copy of the Soviet-designed Sukhoi Su-33 and is fitted with domestically produced radars, engines, and weapons. An unfinished Su-33 prototype, the T-10K-3,[5] was acquired from Ukraine in 2001 and is said to have been studied extensively, reversed engineered, with development on the J-15 beginning immediately afterward.[1][5][6][7] While the J-15 appears to be structurally based on the Su-33, the indigenous fighter features Chinese technologies as well as avionics from the J-11B program.[8] In February 2018, criticism of the aircraft appeared ...more...

Aircraft first flown in 2009

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Mitsubishi F-1

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Mitsubishi F-1

The Mitsubishi F-1 is Japan's first domestically developed and built supersonic military jet. It was nicknamed "Supersonic Rei-Sen" (Rei-Sen being the Japanese term for Mitsubishi's famed A6M "Zero" fighter of WWII). Mitsubishi Heavy Industries and Fuji Heavy Industries jointly developed the F-1. At first glance, it somewhat resembles the French/Anglo SEPECAT Jaguar, but was a completely independent Japanese effort (although it uses the same engines). Its primary role is anti-ship attack with a secondary ground attack role. It can carry AIM-9 Sidewinder missiles for self-defense. Design and development In the mid 1960s, the Japan Air Self-Defense Force (JASDF) commenced studies into an advanced jet trainer which could also be modified to serve in the ground attack and anti-shipping roles. After considering license production of the T-38 Talon and SEPECAT Jaguar, Japan decided to develop its own trainer, the supersonic Mitsubishi T-2, this first flying on 20 July 1971. Cost over-runs in the T-2 program led t ...more...

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Aircraft first flown in 1975

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Mitsubishi Heavy Industries aircraft

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PZL I-22 Iryda

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PZL I-22 Iryda

PZL I-22 Iryda, PZL M93 Iryda, PZL M96 Iryda, was a twin-engine, two-seat Polish military jet trainer aircraft. Development In 1976, a program to develop a new jet trainer for the Polish Air Force started at the Institute of Aeronautics (Polish: Instytut Lotnictwa) to replace the TS-11 Iskra. The Iryda was designed in PZL Mielec (then WSK-Mielec). The first prototype was flown on March 3, 1985. The project was finally cancelled in the 1990s due to problems and a lack of funding. Another reason was a crash of the pre-production series aircraft, even though the cause of accident was exceeding of the performance limits during forced flutter tests. Operators  Poland Polish Air Force. 8 aircraft (1992-1996) Specifications (M93K) PZL I-22 Iryda Data from Instytut Lotnictwa [1] General characteristics Crew: 2: student, instructor Length: 13.22 m (43.36 ft) Wingspan: 9.60 m (31.49 ft) Height: 4.30 m (14.10 ft) Wing area: 19.92 m² (214.31 ft²) Empty weight: 4,600 kg (10,143 lb) Useful load ...more...

Aircraft first flown in 1985

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Cancelled military aircraft projects

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Kawasaki T-4

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Kawasaki T-4

The Kawasaki T-4 is a Japanese subsonic intermediate jet trainer aircraft used by the Japan Air Self-Defense Force. In addition to training duties it is used by the JASDF's Blue Impulse aerobatic team.[1] The first XT-4 prototype flew on July 29, 1985. The first production aircraft was delivered in 1988. Design and development A T-4 at Gifu Air Field In November 1981, Kawasaki was selected as main contractor to design and produce an aircraft relating to the MT-X program. This program was launched to replace the Lockheed T-33[2] and Fuji T-1 jet trainer aircraft in service in the Japan Air Self Defense Force.[3] The initial program planned a run of 220 aircraft and entry into service in 1988.[4] The first production T-4 flew on 28 June 1988 and deliveries to the JASDF began in September 1988. Fighter units of the Japan Air Self-Defense Force are equipped with T-4s as trainer/liaison aircraft. Variants XT-4: Prototype. 4 built. T-4: 208 built.[5] Operators T-4 at Chitose Air Base (2013) T- ...more...

Aircraft first flown in 1985

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Kawasaki aircraft

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Mikoyan Project 1.44

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Mikoyan Project 1.44

The Mikoyan Project 1.44/1.42[N 1] (Russian: Микоян МиГ-1.44; NATO reporting name: Flatpack)[3] was a technology demonstrator developed by the Mikoyan design bureau. It was the Soviet Union's answer to the U.S.'s Advanced Tactical Fighter (ATF), incorporating many fifth-generation jet fighter aspects such as advanced avionics, stealth technology, supermaneuverability, and supercruise. The design's development was a protracted one, characterised by repeated and lengthy postponements due to a chronic lack of funds; the MiG 1.44 made its maiden flight in February 2000, nine years behind schedule, and was cancelled later that year. Development Preliminary design The MiG 1.44 had its origins in the early 1980s, when the U.S. Air Force began developing a fighter under the Advanced Tactical Fighter (ATF) project, which would result in the supermanueverable and stealthy, albeit costly, Lockheed Martin F-22 Raptor. Consequently, the Soviet government tasked its fighter design bureaux the job of developing a fighter ...more...

Abandoned military aircraft projects of Russia

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Delta-wing aircraft

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Aircraft first flown in 2000

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North American T-2 Buckeye

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North American T-2 Buckeye

The North American T-2 Buckeye was the United States Navy's intermediate training aircraft, intended to introduce U.S. Navy and U.S. Marine Corps student naval aviators and student naval flight officers to jets.[1] It entered service in 1959, and was replaced by the McDonnell Douglas T-45 Goshawk in 2008.[2] Design and development The first version of the aircraft entered service in 1959 as the T2J-1. It was redesignated the T-2A in 1962 under the joint aircraft designation system. The two-seat trainer was powered by one Westinghouse J34-WE-46/48 turbojet. The aircraft was subsequently redesigned, and the single engine was replaced with two 3,000 lbf (13,000 N) Pratt & Whitney J60-P-6 turbojets in the T-2B. The T-2C was fitted with two 2,950 lbf (13,100 N) thrust General Electric J85-GE-4 turbojets. The T-2D and T-2E were export versions for the Venezuelan Air Force and Hellenic Air Force, respectively. The T-2 Buckeye (along with the TF-9J) replaced the T2V-1/T-1A SeaStar, though the T-1 continued in ...more...

Aircraft first flown in 1958

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McDonnell FH Phantom

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McDonnell FH Phantom

The McDonnell FH Phantom was a twinjet fighter aircraft designed and first flown during World War II for the United States Navy. The Phantom was the first purely jet-powered aircraft to land on an American aircraft carrier[2][N 1] and the first jet deployed by the United States Marine Corps. Although with the end of the war, only 62 FH-1s were built, it helped prove the viability of carrier-based jet fighters. As McDonnell's first successful fighter, leading to the development of the follow-on F2H Banshee, which was one of the two most important naval jet fighters of the Korean War, it would also establish McDonnell as an important supplier of navy aircraft.[4] When McDonnell chose to bring the name back with the Mach 2–class McDonnell Douglas F-4 Phantom II, it launched what would become the most versatile and widely used western combat aircraft of the Vietnam War era, adopted by the USAF and the US Navy, remaining in use with various countries to the present day.[5] The FH Phantom was originally designated ...more...

Aircraft first flown in 1947

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Cruciform tail aircraft

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Ilyushin Il-102

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Ilyushin Il-102

The Ilyushin Il-102 was an experimental jet-powered ground-attack aircraft designed by Ilyushin. This aircraft was never chosen for production, being surpassed by the Su-25, and only a few development prototypes were built. Design and development In 1967, the Soviet Air Forces drew up a specification for a jet-powered shturmovik or armoured ground attack aircraft. While Sukhoi designed an all-new single seat aircraft, the Su-25, Ilyushin proposed a modified version of their Il-40 of 1953 under the designation Il-42, which, unlike the Sukhoi, was a two-seat aircraft with a remotely-controlled rear gun turret. The design was rejected by the Soviet Air Forces, but Ilyushin decided to continue development as a private venture, renaming the programme Il-102.[1] The Il-102 first prototype flew on 25 September 1982, with a second airframe built for static tests, and carried out 250 test flights until it was grounded in 1984 when the engine life expired.[2] The tail turret of the Il-102, armed with a GSh-23L tw ...more...

Aircraft first flown in 1982

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Anti-tank aircraft

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Mikoyan-Gurevich I-320

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Mikoyan-Gurevich I-320

The Mikoyan-Gurevich I-320 (USAF/DoD designation: Type 18) was a prototype Soviet long-range all-weather interceptor aircraft of the late 1940s-early 1950s. Only two were made, with no production following. Design and development In January 1948, the Soviet Union issued a specification for a long-range, all-weather Interceptor, capable of intercepting hostile aircraft far from the attacker's targets by day and night.[1][2] The specification resulted in designs from several design bureaus, including Mikoyan-Gurevich, who proposed the Izdeliya R ("Article R")[3] or I-320, Lavochkin (the La-200) and Sukhoi (the Su-15).[4] The Mikoyan-Gurevich design, was like the other two competing aircraft, a twin-engined swept-wing aircraft, with the fuselage housing the engines in tandem, with one at the bottom of the forward fuselage and the second in the rear fuselage. The engines were fed from an inlet in the nose, which split into three ducts, the first feeding the forward engine and the other two passing around the c ...more...

Aircraft first flown in 1949

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Raytheon Sentinel

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Raytheon Sentinel

The Raytheon Sentinel is an airborne battlefield and ground surveillance aircraft operated by the Royal Air Force. Based on the Bombardier Global Express ultra long range business jet, it was adapted by Raytheon to meet the RAF's requirements. Originally known as the ASTOR (Airborne STand-Off Radar) programme the aircraft is operated by a RAF squadron manned by both air force and army personnel. The Sentinel is interoperable with other allied systems such as JSTARS and the NATO Alliance Ground Surveillance (AGS) system. In 2010 the UK Conservative-Liberal Democrat coalition government's Strategic Defence and Security Review announced its intention to "withdraw the Sentinel airborne ground surveillance aircraft once it is no longer required to support operations in Afghanistan."[2] Sentinel has supported the British Army in Afghanistan. One Sentinel aircraft was deployed to assist French forces in Mali on 25 January 2013.[3][4] The 2010 decision was reversed in 2014 by Prime Minister David Cameron and in the ...more...

Aircraft first flown in 2004

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T-tail aircraft

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Miles Sparrowjet

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Miles Sparrowjet

The Miles M.77 Sparrowjet was a twin-engined jet-powered racing aircraft built by F.G. Miles Limited by fitting Turbomeca Palas jets to the prototype Miles Sparrowhawk. Design and development The conversion commenced in January 1951 and the Sparrowjet first flew on 14 December 1953. Other modifications included a new tail section and front fuselage (in place of the Sparrowhawk's single engine), fixed, faired-in undercarriage and a large clear canopy. The wing roots were modified to take the Palas engines. Operational history Air racing history The Miles Sparrowjet competing in an air race at Leeds (Yeadon) Airport in 1955 The prototype M.5 Sparrowhawk G-ADNL was bought by Fred Dunkerley's Oldham Tyre Cord Company in January 1951. It was modified to M.77 Sparrowjet standard, and first flown by Dunkerley in air races during the Goodyear Air Challenge Trophy at Shoreham on 28 August 1954. It flew for display at Baginton during the Royal Aero Club race in July but had been prevented from racing owing to an ...more...

Aircraft first flown in 1953

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Mikoyan MiG-29K

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Mikoyan MiG-29K

The Mikoyan MiG-29K (Russian: Микоян МиГ-29K; NATO reporting name: Fulcrum-D[2]) is a Russian all-weather carrier-based multirole fighter aircraft developed by the Mikoyan Design Bureau. The MiG-29K was developed in the late 1980s from the MiG-29M. Mikoyan describes it as a 4++ generation aircraft.[5][6] Production MiG-29Ks differ from prototypes by features such as a multi-function radar and several new cockpit displays; the adoption of HOTAS (hands-on-throttle-and-stick) controls;[7] the integration of RVV-AE (also known as R-77) air-to-air missiles, along with missiles for anti-ship and anti-radar operations; and several ground/strike precision-guided weapons. The MiG-29K was not ordered into production and only two prototypes were originally built because the Russian Navy preferred the Su-27K (later re-designated Su-33) in the early 1990s. Mikoyan did not stop its work on the MiG-29K aircraft despite the lack of financing since 1992. The programme got a boost in the late 1990s to meet an Indian requirem ...more...

Aircraft first flown in 1988

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Nord 1601

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Nord 1601

The Nord 1601 was a French aerodynamic research aircraft designed and built by Nord Aviation. The aircraft was designed to investigate the aerodynamics of swept wings and related high-lift devices. Design and development The 1601 was a cantilever mid-wing monoplane with a 33° swept wing. The wing was fitted with ailerons, spoilers, leading edge slats and trailing edge flaps. It had retractable tricycle landing gear and was powered by two Rolls-Royce Derwent turbojets in underslung, wing mounted nacelles on either side of the fuselage. It had an enclosed cockpit and was fitted with a Martin-Baker ejection seat. The 1601, registered F-WFKK, first flew on the 24 January 1950. Variants Nord 1600 Proposed fighter variant, not built. Nord 1601 Aerodynamic research aircraft, one built. Specifications (1601) Data from Gaillard (1990) p.110[1] General characteristics Crew: 1 Length: 11.62 m (38 ft 7 in) Wingspan: 12.40 m (40 ft 10½ in) Height: 3.67 m (12 ft 0 in) Wing area: 30.2 m2 (333 ft2) Empty ...more...

Aircraft first flown in 1950

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Mid-wing aircraft

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Sukhoi Su-47

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Sukhoi Su-47

The Sukhoi Su-47 Berkut (Russian: Сухой Су-47 Беркут, lit. 'Golden Eagle') (NATO reporting name Firkin[1]), also designated S-32 and S-37 (not to be confused with the twin-engined delta canard design[2] offered by Sukhoi in the early 1990s under the designation Su-37) during initial development, was an experimental supersonic jet fighter developed by Sukhoi Aviation Corporation. A distinguishing feature of the aircraft was its forward-swept wing[3] that gave the aircraft excellent agility and maneuverability. While serial production of the type never materialized, the sole aircraft produced served as a technology demonstrator prototype for a number of advanced technologies later used in the 4.5 generation fighter Su-35BM and current fifth-generation jet fighter Sukhoi Su-57. Development Originally known as the S-37, Sukhoi redesignated its advanced test aircraft as the Su-47 in 2002. Officially nicknamed Berkut (Golden Eagle), the Su-47 was originally built as Russia's principal testbed for composite materi ...more...

Abandoned military aircraft projects of Russia

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Aircraft first flown in 1997

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Lavochkin La-200

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Lavochkin La-200

The Lavochkin La-200 (a.k.a. Aircraft 200) was a two-seater, swept winged, night and bad weather jet interceptor fighter designed and manufactured by the Lavochkin Design Bureau from 1948. Design and development In response to a requirement for a high performance night and bad weather interceptor, Lavochkin (OKB-310), Sukhoi (OKB-134) and Mikoyan-Gurevich (OKB-155) design bureau developed the La-200, Su-15, and I-320 (Istrebitel - 320) respectively. The major driver for the three competing aircraft, was the development of the "Toriy" - Thorium centimetre waveband NII-17 radar at NIIP - Naoochno-Issledovatel'skiy Institut Priborostroyeniya (Research Institute of Instrument Engineering), which was capable of detecting a B-29 Superfortress bomber at a range of 20 km (12 mi). The La-200 was an all-metal, two seater, twin-engined jet aircraft, with a tricycle undercarriage and mid set wings with 40° sweep at 1/4 chord. The two Klimov RD-45F centrifugal flow turbojet engines were to be fitted in tandem inside th ...more...

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Aircraft first flown in 1949

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Sukhoi Su-24

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Sukhoi Su-24

The Sukhoi Su-24 (NATO reporting name: Fencer) is a supersonic, all-weather attack aircraft developed in the Soviet Union. The aircraft has a variable-sweep wing, twin-engines and a side-by-side seating arrangement for its two crew. It was the first of the USSR's aircraft to carry an integrated digital navigation/attack system.[1] It remains in service with the Russian Air Force, Syrian Air Force, Ukrainian Air Force, Azerbaijan Air Force and various air forces to which it was exported. Development Background One of the conditions for accepting the Sukhoi Su-7B into service in 1961 was the requirement for Sukhoi to develop an all-weather variant capable of precision air strikes. Preliminary investigations with S-28 and S-32 aircraft revealed that the basic Su-7 design was too small to contain all the avionics required for the mission.[3] OKB-794 (later known as Leninets)[4] was tasked with developing an advanced nav/attack system, codenamed Puma, which would be at the core of the new aircraft.[1] That same ...more...

Aircraft first flown in 1970

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Variable-sweep-wing aircraft

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McDonnell CF-101 Voodoo

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McDonnell CF-101 Voodoo

The McDonnell CF-101 Voodoo was an all-weather interceptor aircraft operated by the Royal Canadian Air Force and the Canadian Forces between 1961 and 1984. They were manufactured by the McDonnell Aircraft Corporation of St. Louis, Missouri for the United States Air Force (as F-101s), and later sold to Canada. CF-101s replaced the obsolete Avro CF-100 Canuck in the RCAF's all-weather fighter squadrons. The Voodoo's primary armament was nuclear AIR-2A Genie unguided air-to-air rockets, and there was significant political controversy in Canada about their adoption. Although they never fired a weapon in wartime, the CF-101 served as Canada's primary means of air defence from Quick Reaction Alert facilities at Canadian airbases. The CF-101s were retired in the 1980s and replaced with McDonnell Douglas CF-18 Hornet fighters. Many examples are preserved in museums and parks in Canada and the United States. Acquisition Origins After the cancellation of the CF-105 Arrow program in February 1959, George Pearkes, the ...more...

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McDonnell aircraft

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Tupolev Tu-107

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Tupolev Tu-107

The Tupolev Tu-107 was a prototype Soviet military transport aircraft developed from the Tupolev Tu-104. It featured a rear ramp loading door and was intended to carry light vehicles, artillery pieces, or up to 70 paratroopers. The fuselage was unpressurized, which meant that passengers would have to use oxygen masks. A single prototype was built and flown, but the aircraft was not put in production.[1] Specifications (Tu-107) Data from Tupolev Tu-104[1] General characteristics Crew: 6 Capacity: 70 paratroops or 10,000 kg (22,046.23 lb) – 15,000 kg (33,069.34 lb) payload Length: 38.58 m (126 ft 7 in) Wingspan: 34.54 m (113 ft 4 in) Height: 11.53 m (37 ft 10 in) Wing area: 174.48 m2 (1,878.1 sq ft) Powerplant: 2 × Mikulin RD-3M-500 Axial flow turbojet engines, 93.2 kN (21,000 lbf) thrust each Performance Maximum speed: 950 km/h (590 mph; 513 kn) Cruise speed: 775 km/h (482 mph; 418 kn) Range: 3,300 km (2,051 mi; 1,782 nmi) with 10,000 kg (22,046.23 lb) payload, 775 km/h (481.56 mph) ...more...

Aircraft first flown in 1958

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Abandoned military aircraft projects of the Sov...

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Tupolev Tu-82

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Tupolev Tu-82

The Tupolev Tu-82 was a 1940s Soviet experimental swept-wing bomber. It was the first Soviet jet bomber with swept wings.[1] Design and development Similar to the earlier Tupolev Tu-14, the Tu-82 was designed to investigate the use of swept wings. Powered by two Klimov VK-1 engines, the Tu-82 first flew in February 1949.[1] It achieved a top speed of 934 km/h and a ceiling of 14,000 m.[1] Tupolev planned a larger combat version as the Tu-86, but it was not built.[1] Specifications (Tu-82) Data from [2] General characteristics Crew: three Length: 17.57 m (57 ft 8 in) Wingspan: 17.81 m (58 ft 5 in) Wing area: 45 m2 (484 ft2) Empty weight: 9,526 kg (21,000 lb) Gross weight: 18,340 kg (40,430 lb) Powerplant: 2 × Klimov VK-1, 26.5 kN (5955 lbf) thrust each Performance Maximum speed: 934 km/h (579 mph) Range: 2,395 km (1,493 miles) Service ceiling: 11,400 m (37,392 ft) Armament See also Related development Tupolev Tu-14 References Notes Wikimedia Commons has media related to ...more...

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Aircraft first flown in 1949

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Tupolev Tu-12

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Tupolev Tu-12

The Tupolev Tu-12 (development designation Tu-77) was an experimental Soviet jet-powered medium bomber developed from the successful piston-engined Tupolev Tu-2 bomber after the end of World War II. It was designed as a transitional aircraft to familiarize Tupolev and the VVS with the issues involved with jet-engined bombers. Development The Tupolev Tu-73 jet-engined bomber project was suffering delays in early 1947 and Tupolev suggested re-engining the Tu-2 medium bomber with imported British Rolls-Royce Nene jet engines to produce a jet bomber as quickly as possible. Design work began well before official approval was received on 31 May 1947 for one Tu-2S to be converted in the OKB's workshop and another five to be converted at Zavod (Factory) Nr. 23, but construction of the prototype had already begun in early May under the bureau designation Tu-77.[1] Changes from the standard Tu-2 were minimized to speed production and they consisted of the following:[2] Two Nene jet engines replaced the standard Sh ...more...

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Aircraft first flown in 1947

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Tupolev aircraft

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Yakovlev Yak-27

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Yakovlev Yak-27

The Yakovlev Yak-27 (NATO reporting name "Flashlight-C") was a family of Soviet supersonic aircraft developed in 1958 from the Yak-121 prototype. The most built variant was the tactical reconnaissance Yak-27R (NATO reporting name "Mangrove"). Design and development The Yak-121 prototype was developed as a successor to the Yak-25 family and it became the base for the Yak-27 family of supersonic interceptor and tactical reconnaissance aircraft. The Yak-27 and Yak-27K interceptors, armed with guns and K-8 missiles respectively, reached or exceeded their requirements, but were overtaken in performance by the Sukhoi Su-9, and so production was not authorized. A high-altitude interceptor version, the Yak-27V, was converted from the Yak-121 prototype by fitting a 1,300 kg•f (2,866 lb•f) Dushkin S-155 rocket booster in the rear fuselage, and Tumansky RD-9AKYe afterburning turbojets. Although performance was very good, reaching the height of 23,000 m (75,400 ft) during trials, development was halted due to maintenan ...more...

Aircraft first flown in 1956

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Yakovlev Yak-25

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Yakovlev Yak-25

The Yakovlev Yak-25 (NATO designation Flashlight-A/Mandrake) was a swept wing, turbojet-powered interceptor and reconnaissance aircraft built by Yakovlev and used by the Soviet Union. Design and development The Yak-25 originated from a need for long-range Interceptor aircraft to protect the USSR's northern and eastern territory. The specification for a two-seat, twin-engine jet fighter and a related reconnaissance aircraft was issued by Joseph Stalin on 6 August 1951.[1] Yak-120 Yakovlev began developing a two-seat, twin-engine patrol interceptor, designated the Yak-120 by the design bureau, in 1951. It received official authorization by a directive of the Council of Ministers on 10 August of that year. In a break from previous Yakovlev designs, the Yak-120's thin, mid-set wings were swept back at a 45 degree angle with large two-section flaps. To provide more directional stability, a ventral fin was attached to the swept cruciform tail surfaces. The aircraft was powered by two Mikulin AM-5 turbojets, mou ...more...

Aircraft first flown in 1952

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THK-16

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THK-16

The THK-16 Mehmetçik (Turkish: "Little Mehmet"[1]) was an aircraft designed in Turkey in the early 1950s to provide the Turkish Air Force with a domestically designed and built jet trainer. The project was cancelled without the aircraft having been built.[2][3] As designed, the THK-16 was to have been a conventional, mid-wing monoplane with the pilot and instructor seated in tandem under a long canopy. Power would have been provided by two small turbojets mounted in underwing nacelles, and construction was to have been metal throughout.[3] Design work was practically complete in 1952 when Türk Hava Kurumu was bought out by MKEK. Although the THK-16 was selected as one of the THK designs that MKEK felt was worth continuing with and allocated the designation MKEK-3, the Turkish Air Force purchased the Lockheed T-33 Shooting Star as its jet trainer and work on the local design was abandoned.[3] Specifications (as designed) Data from Cebeci 2004 General characteristics Crew: Two, student and instructor L ...more...

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Tupolev Tu-98

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Tupolev Tu-98

The Tupolev Tu-98 (NATO reporting name Backfin) was a prototype swept wing jet bomber developed by Tupolev for the Soviet Union. Design and development The Tu-98 emerged from a program for a fast supersonic bomber to replace the Tupolev Tu-16. It was powered by two Lyulka AL-7 turbojet engines with side-mounted intakes high on the fuselage (above the wingroot). The Tu-98 was built in 1955 and first flown in 1956.[1] It was shown to an American delegation at the Tushino airfield outside Moscow in June 1956,[2] but it subsequently did not enter service, and only the single prototype was completed.[3] The basic design of the Tu-98 had a great influence on the subsequent prototype of the Tupolev Tu-28 interceptor, officially known as the Tu-128 (NATO codename 'Fiddler').[4] Development The Tu-98 is a supersonic development bomber OKB-156, designed as a replacement for Tu-16. Work on the car began on the basis of the Resolution of the USSR Council of Ministers on April 12, 1954. Chief Designer - D. S. Markov. ...more...

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Aircraft first flown in 1956

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Yakovlev Yak-28

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Yakovlev Yak-28

The Yakovlev Yak-28 (Russian: Яковлев Як-28) is a swept wing, turbojet-powered combat aircraft used by the Soviet Union. Produced initially as a tactical bomber, it was also manufactured in reconnaissance, electronic warfare, interceptor, and trainer versions, known by the NATO reporting names Brewer, Firebar, and Maestro respectively. Based on the Yak-129 prototype first flown on 5 March 1958, it began to enter service in 1960. Design and development The Yak-28 was first[2] seen by the West at the Tushino air show in 1961. Western analysts initially believed it to be a fighter rather than an attack aircraft—and a continuation of the Yak-25M—and it was designated "Flashlight". After its actual role was realized, the Yak-28 bomber series was redesignated "Brewer". The Yak-28 had a large mid-mounted wing, swept at 45 degrees. The tailplane set halfway up the vertical fin (with cutouts to allow rudder movement). Slats were fitted on the leading edges and slotted flaps were mounted on the trailing edges of the ...more...

Aircraft first flown in 1958

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Yakovlev Yak-36

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Yakovlev Yak-36

The Yakovlev Yak-36, also known as Izdeliye V, (NATO reporting name "Freehand") is a Soviet technology demonstrator for a VTOL combat aircraft.[2] Design and development From 1960, the Yakovlev Design Bureau began work on a VTOL system, using the compact and lightweight Tumansky RU-19-300 turbojet engine, drafting a proposal for the Yak-104, a converted Yak-30 jet trainer with two vertically mounted Ru-19 engines between the inlet ducts of the standard Yak-30 powerplant. Work on the Yak-104 was terminated in favour of an aircraft with a single lift/cruise engine with rotating nozzles, similar to the Hawker Siddeley P.1127, which was nearing completion in England. Unable to find a suitable engine or convince the government to order the development of one, the Yakovlev bureau was forced to follow a different course.[2] In response to a contract for the development of a single-seat V/STOL fighter in 1961, Yakovlev proposed a twin-engined aircraft with a large nose air intake, engines in the forward fuselage a ...more...

Aircraft first flown in 1963

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Twinjets

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Yakovlev aircraft

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Yakovlev Yak-130

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Yakovlev Yak-130

The Yakovlev Yak-130 (NATO reporting name: Mitten)[8] is a subsonic two-seat advanced jet trainer and light fighter originally developed by Yakovlev and Aermacchi. It has also been marketed as a potential light attack aircraft. Development of the plane began in 1991 and the maiden flight was conducted on 25 April 1996. In 2002, it won a Russian government tender for training aircraft and in 2009 the aircraft entered service with the Russian Air Force. As an advanced training aircraft, the Yak-130 is able to replicate the characteristics of several 4+ generation fighters as well as the fifth-generation Sukhoi Su-57. It can also perform light-attack and reconnaissance duties, carrying a combat load of 3,000 kg. Development Yak-130 at the Zhukovsky Airfield, 1999 In the early 1990s, the Soviet government asked the industry to develop a new aircraft to replace the Czech-made Aero L-29 Delfín and Aero L-39 Albatros jet trainers. Five design bureaus put forward proposals. Among them were the Sukhoi S-54, Myasi ...more...

Mid-wing aircraft

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Aircraft first flown in 1996

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Twinjets

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Sukhoi Su-57

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Sukhoi Su-57

The Sukhoi Su-57 (Russian: Сухой Су-57)[13] is the designation for a stealth, single-seat, twin-engine multirole fifth-generation jet fighter being developed for air superiority and attack operations.[14] The aircraft is the product of the PAK FA (Russian: ПАК ФА, short for: Перспективный авиационный комплекс фронтовой авиации, translit. Perspektivny Aviatsionny Kompleks Frontovoy Aviatsii, lit. ''prospective aeronautical complex of front-line air forces''), a fifth-generation fighter programme of the Russian Air Force. Sukhoi's internal name for the aircraft is T-50. The Su-57 is planned to be the first aircraft in Russian military service to use stealth technology. The fighter is designed to have supercruise, supermaneuverability, stealth, and advanced avionics to overcome the prior generation fighter aircraft as well as ground and naval defences.[15][16] The Su-57 is intended to succeed the MiG-29 and Su-27 in the Russian Air Force.[17] The prototypes and initial production batch are to be delivered with ...more...

Three dimension thrust vectoring aircraft

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Fifth-generation jet fighters

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Twinjets

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Hamburger Flugzeugbau HFB 320 Hansa Jet

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Hamburger Flugzeugbau HFB 320 Hansa Jet

The HFB 320 Hansa Jet is a twin-engine, ten-seat business jet that was built by German aircraft manufacturer Hamburger Flugzeugbau between 1964 and 1973. The most notable feature of the aircraft is its forward-swept wing. Design The HFB 320 is a mid-wing monoplane of conventional layout, with rear-mounted twin jet engines beneath a T-tail. Constructed entirely of metal, it has a 10-seat passenger cabin and retractable tricycle undercarriage. An unusual feature of the aircraft is its forward-swept wing, which is mid-mounted in the fuselage. This arrangement allows the main wing spar to pass through the fuselage behind the passenger cabin, allowing a longer cabin with more seats while maintaining adequate headroom in the small-diameter fuselage. Hans Wocke, head of the engineering team, had previously designed the Junkers Ju 287 forward-swept experimental jet bomber of World War II.[2] As of 2017, the HFB 320 remains the only civilian jet ever to have a forward-swept wing. Operational history The protot ...more...

Forward-swept-wing aircraft

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T-tail aircraft

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Aircraft first flown in 1964

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