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Chancellors of the Exchequer of the United Kingdom


Stafford Cripps

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Stafford Cripps

Sir Richard Stafford Cripps, CH, QC, FRS[1] (24 April 1889 – 21 April 1952) was a British Labour politician of the twentieth century. A wealthy barrister by background, he first entered Parliament at a by-election in 1931, and was one of a handful of Labour frontbenchers to retain his seat at the general election that autumn. He became a leading spokesman for the left-wing and co-operation in a Popular Front with Communists before 1939, in which year he was expelled from the Labour Party. During World War II, he served as Ambassador to the USSR (1940–42), during which time he grew wary of the Soviet Union, but achieved great public popularity because on being invaded by Nazi Germany the USSR stated its co-operation with the Allies and restoring peace, causing him to be seen in 1942 as a potential rival to Winston Churchill for the premiership. He became a member of the War Cabinet of the wartime coalition, but failed in his efforts (the "Cripps Mission") to resolve the wartime crisis in India, where his prop

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Hugh Dalton

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Hugh Dalton

Edward Hugh John Neale Dalton, Baron Dalton, PC (16 August 1887 – 13 February 1962) was a British Labour Party economist and politician who served as Chancellor of the Exchequer from 1945 to 1947. He shaped Labour Party foreign policy in the 1930s, opposing pacifism and promoting rearmament against the German threat, and strongly opposed the appeasement policy of Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain in 1938. Dalton served in Winston Churchill's wartime coalition cabinet; after the Dunkirk evacuation he was Minister of Economic Warfare, and established the Special Operations Executive. As Chancellor, he pushed his policy of cheap money too hard, and mishandled the sterling crisis of 1947. His political position was already in jeopardy in 1947, when, he, seemingly inadvertently, revealed a sentence of the budget to a reporter minutes before delivering his budget speech. Prime Minister Clement Attlee accepted his resignation; Dalton later returned to the cabinet in relatively minor positions. His biographer Ben P

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Alistair Darling

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Alistair Darling

Alistair Maclean Darling, Baron Darling of Roulanish, PC (born 28 November 1953), is a British Labour Party politician who served as Chancellor of the Exchequer in the Labour Government from 2007-2010 and as a Member of Parliament (MP) from 1987 until he stepped down in 2015, most recently for Edinburgh South West. He was one of only three people to have served in the Cabinet continuously from Labour's landslide victory at the 1997 general election until their defeat at the 2010 general election; the other two were Gordon Brown and Jack Straw. Darling was first appointed as Chief Secretary to the Treasury by Prime Minister Tony Blair in 1997, and was promoted to Secretary of State for Work and Pensions in 1998. After spending four years at that department, he spent a further four years as Secretary of State for Transport, while also becoming Secretary of State for Scotland in 2003. Blair moved Darling for a final time in 2006, making him President of the Board of Trade and Secretary of State for Trade and In

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Thomas Denman, 1st Baron Denman

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Thomas Denman, 1st Baron Denman

Thomas Denman, 1st Baron Denman, PC (23 July 1779 – 26 September 1854) was a British lawyer, judge and politician. He served as Lord Chief Justice between 1832 and 1850. Background and education Denman was born in London, the son of Dr Thomas Denman. In his fourth year he attended Palgrave Academy in Suffolk, where his education was supervised by Anna Laetitia Barbauld and her husband.[1] He continued to Eton and St John's College, Cambridge, where he graduated in 1800.[2] In 1806 he was called to the bar at Lincoln's Inn, and at once entered upon practice.[3] Legal and judicial career Lord Denman as Lord Chief Justice, by Sir Martin Archer Shee. His success was rapid, and in a few years he attained a position at the bar second only to that of Henry Brougham and James Scarlett. He distinguished himself by his defence of the Luddites; but his most brilliant appearance was as one of the counsel for Queen Caroline. His speech before the House of Lords was very powerful, and some competent judges even cons

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Benjamin Disraeli

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Benjamin Disraeli

Benjamin Disraeli, 1st Earl of Beaconsfield, KG, PC, FRS (21 December 1804 – 19 April 1881) was a British politician of the Conservative Party who twice served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. He played a central role in the creation of the modern Conservative Party, defining its policies and its broad outreach. Disraeli is remembered for his influential voice in world affairs, his political battles with the Liberal Party leader William Ewart Gladstone, and his one-nation conservatism or "Tory democracy". He made the Conservatives the party most identified with the glory and power of the British Empire. He is the only British prime minister to have been of Jewish birth. He was also a novelist, publishing works of fiction even as prime minister. Disraeli was born in Bloomsbury, then a part of Middlesex. His father left Judaism after a dispute at his synagogue; young Benjamin became an Anglican at the age of 12. After several unsuccessful attempts, Disraeli entered the House of Commons in 1837. In 1846

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Hugh Gaitskell

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Hugh Gaitskell

Hugh Todd Naylor Gaitskell CBE (9 April 1906 – 18 January 1963) was a British politician and Leader of the Labour Party. An economics lecturer and wartime civil servant, he was elected to Parliament in 1945 and held office in Clement Attlee's governments, notably as Minister of Fuel and Power after the bitter winter of 1946–47, and eventually joining the Cabinet as Chancellor of the Exchequer. Facing the need to increase military spending in 1951, he imposed National Health Service charges on dentures and spectacles, prompting the leading left-winger Aneurin Bevan to resign from the Cabinet. The perceived similarity in his outlook to that of his Conservative Party counterpart Rab Butler was dubbed "Butskellism", initially a satirical term, after an elision of their names, and was one aspect of the post-war consensus through which the major parties largely agreed on the main points of domestic and foreign policy until the 1970s.[1][2] With Labour in opposition from 1951, Gaitskell won bitter leadership battle

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William Ewart Gladstone

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William Ewart Gladstone

William Ewart Gladstone PC FRS FSS (29 December 1809 – 19 May 1898) was a British statesman and Liberal politician. In a career lasting over 60 years, he served for 12 years as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, spread over four terms beginning in 1868 and ending in 1894. He also served as Chancellor of the Exchequer four times. Gladstone was born in Liverpool to Scottish parents. He first entered the House of Commons in 1832, beginning his political career as a High Tory, a grouping which became the Conservative Party under Robert Peel in 1834. Gladstone served as a minister in both of Peel's governments, and in 1846 joined the breakaway Peelite faction, which eventually merged into the new Liberal Party in 1859. He was Chancellor under Lord Aberdeen (1852–1855), Lord Palmerston (1859–1865) and Lord Russell (1865–1866). Gladstone's own political doctrine—which emphasised equality of opportunity and opposition to trade protectionism—came to be known as Gladstonian liberalism. His popularity amongst the wo

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Henry Goulburn

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Henry Goulburn

Henry Goulburn PC FRS (19 March 1784 – 12 January 1856) was a British Conservative statesman and a member of the Peelite faction after 1846. Background and education Born in London, Goulburn was the eldest son of Munbee Goulburn, of London, by his wife Susannah, eldest daughter of William Chetwynd, 4th Viscount Chetwynd. He was educated at Trinity College, Cambridge.[1] Goulburn lived in Betchworth, Dorking in Betchworth House for much of his life. Sugar plantation owner Goulburn's inheritance included a number of sugar estates in Jamaica, Amity Hall in the parish of Vere, now Clarendon Parish being the most important. Slave labour was still being used to work the sugar plantations when he inherited the estates.[2][3] Goulburn never visited Jamaica himself, due his health and political work, he relied on attorneys to manage his estates on his behalf. One attorney in particular, Thomas Samson, held the top job at the estate from 1802–1818 and earned a reputation for cruelty towards Goulburn's slaves. By

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George Goschen, 1st Viscount Goschen

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George Goschen, 1st Viscount Goschen

George Joachim Goschen, 1st Viscount Goschen, PC, DL, FBA (10 August 1831 – 7 February 1907) was a British statesman and businessman best remembered for being "forgotten" by Lord Randolph Churchill. He was initially a Liberal, then a Liberal Unionist before joining the Conservative Party in 1893. While Chancellor of the Exchequer, in 1888 he introduced the Goschen formula to allocate funding for Scotland and Ireland. Background, education and business career He was born in London, the son of Wilhelm Heinrich (William Henry) Goschen, who emigrated from Leipzig. His grandfather was the prominent German printer Georg Joachim Göschen. He was educated at Rugby under Tait, and at Oriel College, Oxford, where he took a first in Literae Humaniores.[1] He entered his father's firm of Fruhling & Goschen, of Austin Friars, in 1853, and three years later became a director of the Bank of England. From 1874 to 1880, Goschen was Governor (Company chairman) of the Hudson's Bay Company, North America's oldest company

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Charles Wood, 1st Viscount Halifax

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Charles Wood, 1st Viscount Halifax

Heraldic memorial window to Grey and Wood family, Church of the Holy Angels, Hoar Cross, Staffordshire Charles Wood, 1st Viscount Halifax, GCB, PC (20 December 1800 – 8 August 1885), known as Sir Charles Wood, 3rd Bt between 1846 and 1866, was an Anglo-Indian Whig politician and Member of Parliament of the British Empire. He served as Chancellor of the Exchequer from 1846 to 1852. Background Halifax was the son of Sir Francis Wood, 2nd Baronet of Barnsley, and his wife Anne, daughter of Samuel Buck. He was educated at Eton and Oriel College, Oxford, where he studied classics and mathematics. Political career A Liberal and Member of Parliament from 1826 to 1866, Wood served as Chancellor of the Exchequer in Lord John Russell's government (1846 –1852), where he opposed any further help for Ireland during the Great Famine there. In his 1851 budget, Sir Charles liberalized trade, reducing import duties and encouraging consumer goods. Disraeli, a former protectionist, would after Peel's death transform the pa

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Denis Healey

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Denis Healey

Denis Winston Healey, Baron Healey,[1] CH, MBE, PC, FRSL (30 August 1917 – 3 October 2015), was a British Labour Party politician who served as Secretary of State for Defence from 1964 to 1970, Chancellor of the Exchequer from 1974 to 1979 and Deputy Leader of the Labour Party from 1980 to 1983. He was a Member of Parliament for 40 years (from 1952 until his retirement in 1992) and was the last surviving member of the cabinet formed by Harold Wilson after the Labour Party's victory in the 1964 general election. A major figure in the party, he was defeated for the party leadership in 1976 and 1980. To the public at large, Healey became well known for his bushy eyebrows and his creative turns of phrase. Early life Denis Winston Healey was born in Mottingham, Kent, but moved with his family to Keighley in the West Riding of Yorkshire at the age of five.[2] His parents were Winifred Mary (née Powell; 1889–1988) and William Healey (1886–1977). His middle name honoured Winston Churchill.[3] Healey had one brot

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John Charles Herries

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John Charles Herries

John Charles Herries PC (November 1778 – 24 April 1855), known as J. C. Herries, was a British politician and financier and a frequent member of Tory and Conservative cabinets in the early to mid-19th century. Background and education Herries was the eldest son of Charles Herries, a London merchant, by his wife Mary Ann Johnson, and was educated at Cheam and the University of Leipzig. Political career Herries worked his way up in the Treasury and eventually became Secretary to the First Lord of the Treasury, Commissary-General to the Army, Paymaster of the Civil List, Secretary to the Treasury (1823–1827), Chancellor of the Exchequer in Lord Goderich's government (1827–1828), Master of the Mint under the Duke of Wellington (1828–1830), briefly President of the Board of Trade (1830), Secretary at War under Sir Robert Peel (1834–1835), and finally President of the Board of Control in Lord Derby's first government (1852). During his tenure as Commissary-General, he used the help of Nathan Mayer Rothschild to

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Michael Hicks Beach, 1st Earl St Aldwyn

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Michael Hicks Beach, 1st Earl St Aldwyn

Michael Edward Hicks Beach, 1st Earl St Aldwyn, PC, DL (23 October 1837 – 30 April 1916), known as Sir Michael Hicks Beach, Bt, from 1854 to 1906 and subsequently as The Viscount St Aldwyn to 1915, was a British Conservative politician. Known as "Black Michael", he notably served as Chancellor of the Exchequer from 1885 to 1886 and again from 1895 to 1902 and also led the Conservative Party in the House of Commons from 1885 to 1886. Due to the length of his service, he was Father of the House from 1901 to 1906, when he took his peerage. Background and education Born at Portugal Street in London, Hicks Beach was the son of Sir Michael Hicks Beach, 8th Baronet, of Beverston, and his wife Harriett Vittoria, second daughter of John Stratton.[1] He was educated at Eton College and Christ Church, Oxford, where he graduated with a first class degree in the School of Law and Modern History in 1858. In 1854 he succeeded his father as ninth Baronet.[1] Political career, 1864–1888 In 1864 he was returned to Parliame

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Geoffrey Howe

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Geoffrey Howe

Richard Edward Geoffrey Howe, Baron Howe of Aberavon, CH, Kt, PC, QC (20 December 1926 – 9 October 2015), known from 1970 to 1992 as Sir Geoffrey Howe, was a British Conservative politician. Howe was Margaret Thatcher's longest-serving Cabinet minister, successively holding the posts of Chancellor of the Exchequer, Foreign Secretary, and finally Leader of the House of Commons, Deputy Prime Minister and Lord President of the Council. His resignation on 1 November 1990 is widely considered by the British press to have precipitated Thatcher's own resignation three weeks later. Early life Geoffrey Howe was born in 1926 at Port Talbot, Wales, to Benjamin Edward Howe, a solicitor and coroner, and Eliza Florence (née Thomson) Howe. He was to describe himself as a quarter Scottish, a quarter Cornish and half Welsh.[1] He was educated at three independent schools: at Bridgend Preparatory School in Bryntirion, followed by Abberley Hall School in Worcestershire and by winning an exhibition to Winchester College in H

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George Ward Hunt

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George Ward Hunt

Hunt as caricatured by Carlo Pellegrini in Vanity Fair, March 1871 George Ward Hunt (30 July 1825 – 29 July 1877) was a British statesman of the Conservative Party who was Chancellor of the Exchequer and First Lord of the Admiralty in the first and second ministries of Benjamin Disraeli. Background He was born at Buckhurst in Berkshire, the only surviving son of a minister, Revd. George Hunt,[1] and graduated from Christ Church, Oxford, in 1851, and 21 November of that year was called to the bar at the Inner Temple. Political career He finally entered the House of Commons in 1857 as Member of Parliament for Northamptonshire North, at the end of the year, having made several unsuccessful attempts previously. He was a Secretary to the Treasury from 1866 to 1868, in the ministry of the 14th Earl of Derby. He was then appointed to the Exchequer when Disraeli took office. By repute, when he presented his one and only Budget speech to parliament he discovered that he had left the ministerial "Red Box" containi

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Norman Lamont

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Norman Lamont

Norman Stewart Hughson Lamont, Baron Lamont of Lerwick, PC (born 8 May 1942), is a British politician and former Conservative MP for Kingston-upon-Thames. He is best known for his period serving as Chancellor of the Exchequer, from 1990 until 1993. He was created a life peer in 1998. Lamont is a supporter of the Eurosceptic organisation Leave Means Leave.[1] Early life Lamont was born in Lerwick, in the Shetland Islands, where his father was the islands' surgeon.[2] He was educated at Loretto School, Musselburgh, Scotland,[2] and read Economics at Fitzwilliam College, Cambridge,[2][3] where he was Chairman of the Cambridge University Conservative Association and President of the Cambridge Union Society in 1964. He also took part in the English-Speaking Union's Tour of the United States. At Cambridge, he was a contemporary of Michael Howard, Kenneth Clarke, Leon Brittan, and John Gummer, all of whom became leading figures in the Conservative Party. The group was sometimes collectively known as the Cambridge

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Bonar Law

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Bonar Law

Andrew Bonar Law ([1] 16 September 1858 – 30 October 1923) was a British Conservative politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1922 to 1923. Law was born in the British colony of New Brunswick (now a Canadian province), the first British prime minister to be born outside the British Isles. He was of Scottish and Ulster Scots descent and moved to Scotland in 1870. He left school aged sixteen to work in the iron industry, becoming a wealthy man by the age of thirty. He entered the House of Commons at the 1900 general election, relatively late in life for a front-rank politician, and was made a junior minister, Parliamentary Secretary to the Board of Trade, in 1902. Law joined the Shadow Cabinet in opposition after the 1906 general election. In 1911, he was appointed a Privy Councillor, and stood for the vacant party leadership. Despite never having served in the Cabinet, and despite trailing third after Walter Long and Austen Chamberlain, Law became leader when the two front-runners w

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Nigel Lawson

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Nigel Lawson

Nigel Lawson, Baron Lawson of Blaby, PC (born 11 March 1932) is a British Conservative politician and journalist. He was a Member of Parliament representing the constituency of Blaby from 1974 to 1992, and served in the cabinet of Margaret Thatcher from 1981 to 1989. Prior to entering the Cabinet, he served as the Financial Secretary to the Treasury from May 1979 until his promotion to Secretary of State for Energy. He was appointed as Chancellor of the Exchequer in June 1983, and served until his resignation in October 1989. In both Cabinet posts, Lawson was a key proponent of Thatcher's policies of privatisation of several key industries. Lawson oversaw the sudden deregulation of financial markets in 1986, commonly referred to as the "Big Bang", which shifted the center of gravity for the world's financial markets to London from New York City. Lawson was a backbencher from 1989 until he retired in 1992, and now sits in the House of Lords. He is still active in politics as President of Conservatives for Bri

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Selwyn Lloyd

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Selwyn Lloyd

John Selwyn Brooke Lloyd, Baron Selwyn-Lloyd, CH, CBE, TD, PC, QC, DL (28 July 1904 – 18 May 1978), known for most of his career as Selwyn Lloyd, was a British politician. Lloyd grew up near Liverpool. After being an active Liberal as a young man in the 1920s, the following decade he practised as a barrister and served on Hoylake Urban District Council, by which time he had become a Conservative Party sympathiser. During the Second World War he rose to be Deputy Chief of Staff of Second Army, playing an important role in planning sea transport to the Normandy beachhead and reaching the acting rank of brigadier. Elected to Parliament in 1945, he held ministerial office from 1951, eventually rising to be Foreign Secretary under Prime Minister Anthony Eden from April 1955. His tenure coincided with the Suez Crisis, for which he at first attempted to negotiate a peaceful settlement, before reluctantly assisting with Eden's wish to negotiate collusion with France and Israel as a prelude to military action. He co

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David Lloyd George

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David Lloyd George

David Lloyd George, 1st Earl Lloyd-George of Dwyfor, OM, PC (17 January 1863 – 26 March 1945) was a British statesman who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom between 1916 and 1922. He was the final Liberal to hold the post. Lloyd George was born in Manchester to Welsh parents. His father—a schoolmaster—died in 1864 and he was raised in Wales by his mother and her shoemaker brother, whose Liberal politics and Baptist faith strongly influenced Lloyd George; the same uncle helped the boy embark on a career as a solicitor after leaving school. Lloyd George became active in local politics, gaining a reputation as an orator and a proponent of a Welsh blend of radical Liberalism which championed nonconformism and the disestablishment of the Anglican church in Wales, equality for labourers and tenant farmers, and reform of landownership. In 1890 he narrowly won a by-election to become the Member of Parliament for Caernarvon Boroughs, in which seat he remained for fifty-five years. Lloyd George served in H

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Robert Lowe

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Robert Lowe

Robert Lowe, 1st Viscount Sherbrooke, GCB, PC (4 December 1811 – 27 July 1892),[1] British statesman, was a pivotal but often forgotten figure who shaped British politics in the latter half of the 19th century. He held office under William Ewart Gladstone as Chancellor of the Exchequer between 1868 and 1873 and as Home Secretary between 1873 and 1874. Lowe is remembered for his work in education policy, his opposition to electoral reform and his contribution to modern UK company law. Gladstone appointed Lowe as Chancellor expecting him to hold down public spending. Public spending rose, and Gladstone pronounced Lowe "wretchedly deficient"; most historians agree. Lowe repeatedly underestimated the revenue, enabling him to resist demands for tax cuts and to reduce the national debt instead. He insisted that the tax system be fair to all classes. By his own main criterion of fairness – that the balance between direct and indirect taxation remain unchanged – he succeeded. However historians do not believe this ba

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Iain Macleod

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Iain Macleod

Iain Norman Macleod (11 November 1913 – 20 July 1970) was a British Conservative Party politician and government minister. A playboy and professional bridge player in his twenties, after war service Macleod worked for the Conservative Research Department before entering Parliament in 1950. He was an outstanding orator and debater, and was soon appointed Minister of Health, later serving as Minister of Labour. He served an important term as Secretary of State for the Colonies under Harold Macmillan in the early 1960s, overseeing the independence of many African countries from British rule but earning the enmity of Conservative right-wingers, and the soubriquet that he was "too clever by half". Macleod was unhappy with the "emergence" of Sir Alec Douglas-Home as party leader and Prime Minister in succession to Macmillan in 1963 (he claimed to have supported Macmillan's deputy Rab Butler, although it is unclear exactly what his recommendation had been). He refused to serve in Home's government, and whilst serv

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Harold Macmillan

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Harold Macmillan

Maurice Harold Macmillan, 1st Earl of Stockton, OM, PC, FRS (10 February 1894 – 29 December 1986) was a British Conservative politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1957 to 1963. Dubbed "Supermac", he was known for his pragmatism, wit and unflappability. Macmillan served in the Grenadier Guards during the First World War. He was wounded three times, most severely in September 1916 during the Battle of the Somme. He spent the rest of the war in a military hospital unable to walk, and suffered pain and partial immobility for the rest of his life. After the war Macmillan joined his family business, then entered Parliament at the 1924 general election for the northern industrial constituency of Stockton-on-Tees. After losing his seat in 1929, he regained it in 1931, soon after which he spoke out against the high rate of unemployment in Stockton-On-Tees, and against appeasement. Rising to high office during the Second World War as a protégé of wartime Prime Minister Winston Churchill, M

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John Major

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John Major

Sir John Major KG CH (born 29 March 1943) is a British politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom and leader of the Conservative Party from 1990 to 1997. Major was Foreign Secretary and then Chancellor of the Exchequer in the Thatcher Government from 1989 to 1990, and was Member of Parliament (MP) for Huntingdon from 1979 until his retirement in 2001. Since the death of Margaret Thatcher in 2013, he has been both the oldest and earliest-serving of all living former prime ministers. Born in St Helier, Surrey, Major grew up in Brixton. He initially worked as an insurance clerk, and then at the London Electricity Board, before becoming an executive at Standard Chartered. He was first elected to the House of Commons at the 1979 general election as MP for Huntingdon. He served as a Parliamentary Private Secretary, Assistant Whip and as a Minister for Social Security. In 1987, he joined the Cabinet as chief secretary to the Treasury, and was promoted to foreign secretary two years later. Just th

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Reginald McKenna

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Reginald McKenna

Reginald McKenna (6 July 1863 – 6 September 1943) was a British banker and Liberal politician. His first Cabinet post under Henry Campbell-Bannerman was as President of the Board of Education, after which he served as First Lord of the Admiralty. His most important roles were as Home Secretary and Chancellor of the Exchequer during the premiership of H. H. Asquith. He was studious and meticulous, noted for his attention to detail, but also for being bureaucratic and partisan.[2][3] Background and education Born in Kensington, London,[1] McKenna was the son of William Columban McKenna and his wife Emma, daughter of Charles Hanby.[1] Sir Joseph Neale McKenna was his uncle. McKenna was educated at King's College School and at Trinity Hall, Cambridge.[4] At Cambridge he was a notable rower. In 1886, he was a member of the Trinity Hall Boat Club eight that won the Grand Challenge Cup at Henley Royal Regatta.[5] He rowed bow in the winning Cambridge boat in the 1887 Boat Race. Also in 1887 he was a member of the

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Reginald Maudling

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Reginald Maudling

Reginald Maudling (7 March 1917 – 14 February 1979)[1] was a British politician who held several Cabinet posts, including Chancellor of the Exchequer. From 1955 until the late 1960s, he was spoken of as a prospective Conservative leader, and he was twice seriously considered for the post; he was Edward Heath's chief rival in 1965. He also held directorships in several British financial firms. As Home Secretary, he was responsible for the UK Government's Northern Ireland policy during the period that included Bloody Sunday in 1972. Soon afterwards, he left office due to an unrelated scandal in one of the companies of which he was director. Early life Reginald Maudling was born in Woodside Park, North Finchley, and was named after his father, Reginald George Maudling, an actuary at R. Watson & Sons and Public Valuer,[2] who contracted to do actuarial and financial calculations as the Commercial Calculating Company Ltd. The family moved to Bexhill to escape German air raids; Maudling won scholarships to

Alcohol-related deaths in England

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Francis Baring, 1st Baron Northbrook

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Francis Baring, 1st Baron Northbrook

Francis Thornhill Baring, 1st Baron Northbrook, PC (20 April 1796 – 6 September 1866), known as Sir Francis Baring, 3rd Baronet, from 1848 to 1866, was a British Whig politician who served in the governments of Lord Melbourne and Lord John Russell. Early life A member of the famous Baring banking family, he was the eldest son of Sir Thomas Baring, 2nd Baronet, and his wife Mary Ursula, eldest daughter of Charles Sealy. Baring was educated at Winchester College and then Eton College. He obtained a double first class from Christ Church, Oxford in 1817 and graduated with a Master of Arts four years later.[1] In 1823, he was called to the Bar at Lincoln's Inn and in 1848, he succeeded his father as baronet.[1] Political career Baring entered the British House of Commons in 1826, sitting as a Member of Parliament for Portsmouth until his retirement in 1865. A year later, he was raised to the Peerage of the United Kingdom as Baron Northbrook. Baring was appointed a Lord of the Treasury in 1830, a post he held

Whig (British political party) MPs for English ...

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Liberal Party (UK) MPs for English constituencies

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Financial Secretary to the Treasury

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Stafford Northcote, 1st Earl of Iddesleigh

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Stafford Northcote, 1st Earl of Iddesleigh

For the 4th Earl of Iddesleigh, see Stafford Northcote, 4th Earl of Iddesleigh Stafford Henry Northcote, 1st Earl of Iddesleigh, GCB, PC, FRS (27 October 1818 – 12 January 1887), known as Sir Stafford Northcote from 1851 to 1885, was a British Conservative politician. He served as Chancellor of the Exchequer between 1874 and 1880 and as Foreign Secretary between 1885 and 1886, and was one of only two people to hold the office of First Lord of the Treasury without ever being Prime Minister (the other being William Henry Smith, his successor-but-two, who, like Iddesleigh, also served in post in one of the Salisbury ministries). Background and education Northcote (pronounced "Northcut") was born at Portland Place, London, on 27 October 1818.[1] He was the eldest son of Henry Stafford Northcote (1792–1850), eldest son of Sir Stafford Henry Northcote, 7th Baronet. His mother was Agnes Mary (died 1840), daughter of Thomas Cockburn. His paternal ancestors had long been settled in Devon, tracing their descent from

Peers of the United Kingdom created by Queen Vi...

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Leaders of the House of Commons of the United K...

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Robert Peel

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Robert Peel

Sir Robert Peel, 2nd Baronet, FRS (5 February 1788 – 2 July 1850) was a British Conservative statesman who served twice as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (1834–35 and 1841–46) and twice as Home Secretary (1822–27 and 1828–30). He is regarded as the father of modern British policing, owing to his founding of the Metropolitan Police Service. Peel was one of the founders of the modern Conservative Party. The son of a wealthy textile-manufacturer and politician, Peel was the first prime minister from an industrial business background. He earned a double first in classics and mathematics from Christ Church, Oxford. He entered the House of Commons in 1809, and became a rising star in the Tory Party. Peel entered the Cabinet as Home Secretary (1822–1827), where he reformed and liberalised the criminal law and created the modern police force, leading to a new type of officer known in tribute to him as "bobbies" and "peelers". After a brief period out of office he returned as Home Secretary under his political

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Members of the Athenaeum Club, London

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Political party founders

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F. J. Robinson, 1st Viscount Goderich

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F. J. Robinson, 1st Viscount Goderich

Frederick John Robinson, 1st Earl of Ripon, PC (1 November 1782 – 28 January 1859), styled The Honourable F. J. Robinson until 1827 and known as The Viscount Goderich GOHD-rich[1] between 1827 and 1833, the name by which he is best known to history, was a British politician during the Regency era. He was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom between August 1827 and January 1828. A member of the rural landowning aristocracy, Robinson entered politics through family connections. In the House of Commons he rose through junior ministerial ranks, achieving cabinet office in 1818 as President of the Board of Trade. In 1823 he was appointed Chancellor of the Exchequer, a post he held for four years. In 1827 he was raised to the peerage, and in the House of Lords was Leader of the House and Secretary of State for War and the Colonies. When the Prime Minister, George Canning, died in 1827 Goderich succeeded him, but was unable to hold together Canning's fragile coalition of moderate Tories and Whigs. He resigned afte

People from London

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19th-century Prime Ministers of the United Kingdom

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John Simon, 1st Viscount Simon

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John Simon, 1st Viscount Simon

John Allsebrook Simon, 1st Viscount Simon, GCSI, GCVO, OBE, PC (28 February 1873 – 11 January 1954), was a British politician who held senior Cabinet posts from the beginning of the First World War to the end of the Second. He is one of only three people to have served as Home Secretary, Foreign Secretary and Chancellor of the Exchequer, the others being Rab Butler and James Callaghan. He also served as Lord Chancellor, the most senior position in the British legal system. Beginning his career as a Liberal (identified with the left-wing[1] and later the right-wing of the party),[2] he joined the National Government in 1931, creating the Liberal National Party in the process. At the end of his career, he was essentially a Conservative. Background and education Simon was born in a terraced house on Moss Side, Manchester, the eldest child and only son[3][4] of Edwin Simon (1843–1920) and Fanny Allsebrook (1846–1936).[3] His father was a Congregationalist minister like three of his five brothers and was pastor

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Philip Snowden, 1st Viscount Snowden

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Philip Snowden, 1st Viscount Snowden

Philip Snowden, 1st Viscount Snowden, PC (18 July 1864 – 15 May 1937) was a British politician. A strong speaker, he became popular in trade union circles for his denunciation of capitalism as unethical and his promise of a socialist utopia. He was the first Labour Chancellor of the Exchequer, a position he held in 1924 and again between 1929 and 1931. He broke with Labour policy in 1931, and was expelled from the party and excoriated as a turncoat, as the Party was overwhelmingly crushed that year by the National Government coalition that Snowden supported. He was succeeded as Chancellor by Neville Chamberlain. Early life: 1864–1906 Snowden was born in Cowling in the West Riding of Yorkshire. His father John Snowden had been a weaver and a supporter of Chartism, and later a Gladstonian liberal. Snowden later wrote in his autobiography: "I was brought up in this Radical atmosphere, and it was then that I imbibed the political and social principles which I have held fundamentally ever since".[1] Although his

Independent Labour Party National Administrativ...

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Thomas Spring Rice, 1st Baron Monteagle of Brandon

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Thomas Spring Rice, 1st Baron Monteagle of Brandon

Thomas Spring Rice, 1st Baron Monteagle of Brandon, PC, FRS, FGS (8 February 1790 – 7 February 1866) was a British Whig politician, who served as Chancellor of the Exchequer from 1835 to 1839. Background Spring Rice was born into a notable Anglo-Irish family, which owned large estates in Munster.[1] He was one of the three children of Stephen Edward Rice (d.1831), of Mount Trenchard House, and Catherine Spring, daughter and heiress of Thomas Spring of Ballycrispin and Castlemaine, County Kerry, a descendant of the Suffolk Spring family.[2] He was a great grandson of Sir Stephen Rice (1637–1715), Chief Baron of the Irish Exchequer and a leading Jacobite Sir Maurice FitzGerald, 14th Knight of Kerry.[3] His only married sister, Mary, was the mother of the Catholic converts Aubrey Thomas de Vere, poet, and the Liberal Member of Parliament, Sir Stephen de Vere, 4th Baronet. Spring Rice's grandfather, Edward, had converted the family from Roman Catholicism to the Anglican Church of Ireland, to save his estate fro

Members of the Parliament of the United Kingdom...

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Financial Secretary to the Treasury

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Barons Monteagle of Brandon

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Charles Abbott, 1st Baron Tenterden

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Charles Abbott, 1st Baron Tenterden

Charles Abbott, 1st Baron Tenterden PC SL (7 October 1762 – 4 November 1832), was a British barrister and judge who served as Lord Chief Justice of the King's Bench between 1818 and 1832. Born in obscure circumstances to a barber and his wife in Canterbury, Abbott was educated initially at a dame school before moving to The King's School, Canterbury in 1769. He was noted as an excellent student, receiving an exhibition scholarship from the school in March 1781, when he matriculated at Corpus Christi College, Oxford. Here he was elected a fellow, and also served as a tutor to the son of Sir Francis Buller, which first made him consider becoming a barrister. He joined the Middle Temple in 1787, transferring to the Inner Temple in 1793, and was called to the Bar by the Inner Temple in 1796. Abbott was noted as an excellent barrister, earning more than any other during his time at the Bar, despite being considered unimaginitive and a poor speaker. He was offered a position as a Justice of the Court of Common Plea

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Justices of the Common Pleas

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John Anderson, 1st Viscount Waverley

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John Anderson, 1st Viscount Waverley

John Anderson, 1st Viscount Waverley, GCB, OM, GCSI, GCIE, PC, PC (Ire), FRS[1] (8 July 1882 – 4 January 1958) was a British civil servant and politician who is best known for his service in the Cabinet during the Second World War, for which he was nicknamed the "Home Front Prime Minister". He served as Home Secretary, Lord President of the Council and Chancellor of the Exchequer. Anderson shelters are named after him. Early life He was born in Eskbank, part of Dalkeith in Midlothian and studied mathematics and geology at the University of Edinburgh and chemistry at the University of Leipzig where he wrote a thesis on the chemistry of uranium. He was a brilliant student, winning numerous prizes, but at the age of 22 he decided to forsake a career in science and sat for the British civil service examinations, coming first, while also taking a degree in economics. In later life he was elected an honorary Fellow of the Royal Society.[1] He was appointed to the Colonial Office in 1905. Aged only thirty-four,

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Nicholas Vansittart, 1st Baron Bexley

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Nicholas Vansittart, 1st Baron Bexley

Nicholas Vansittart, 1st Baron Bexley, PC, FRS, FSA (29 April 1766 – 8 February 1851) was an English politician, and one of the longest-serving Chancellors of the Exchequer in British history. Background and education The fifth son of Henry Vansittart (died 1770), the Governor of Bengal, Vansittart was born in Bloomsbury, Middlesex, and raised in Bray, Berkshire. Educated at Christ Church, Oxford, he took his degree in 1787, and was called to the bar at Lincolns Inn.[1] From the early 1770s he was living with his mother at 60 Crooms Hill, Greenwich. Political career Vansittart began his public career by writing pamphlets in defence of the administration of William Pitt, especially on its financial side, and in May 1796 became Member of Parliament for Hastings, retaining his seat until July 1802, when he was returned for Old Sarum. In February 1801 he was sent on a diplomatic errand to Copenhagen, and shortly after his return was appointed joint Secretary to the Treasury, a position which he retained until

EngvarB from May 2015

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Baronies in the Peerage of the United Kingdom

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Kingsley Wood

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Kingsley Wood

Sir Howard Kingsley Wood (19 August 1881 – 21 September 1943) was an English Conservative politician. The son of a Wesleyan Methodist minister, he qualified as a solicitor, and successfully specialised in industrial insurance. He became a member of the London County Council and then a Member of Parliament. Wood served as junior minister to Neville Chamberlain at the Ministry of Health, establishing a close personal and political alliance. His first cabinet post was Postmaster General, in which he transformed the British Post Office from a bureaucracy to a business. As Secretary of State for Air in the months before the Second World War he oversaw a huge increase in the production of warplanes to bring Britain up to parity with Germany. When Winston Churchill became Prime Minister in 1940, Wood was made Chancellor of the Exchequer, in which post he adopted policies propounded by John Maynard Keynes, changing the role of HM Treasury from custodian of government income and expenditure to steering the entire Bri

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George Osborne

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George Osborne

George Gideon Oliver Osborne[a] CH (born Gideon Oliver Osborne; 23 May 1971) is a British newspaper editor and former Conservative Party politician, who was Member of Parliament (MP) for Tatton from June 2001 until he stood down on 3 May 2017. He served as Chancellor of the Exchequer under Prime Minister David Cameron from 2010 to 2016. He has been editor of the London Evening Standard since May 2017 and chair of the Northern Powerhouse Partnership (NPP) since September 2016. Osborne worked briefly as a freelancer for The Daily Telegraph before joining the Conservative Research Department in 1994 and becoming head of its political section. He went on to be a special adviser to Douglas Hogg, the Minister of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, and worked at 10 Downing Street as well as for Prime Minister John Major's campaign team in the party's unsuccessful 1997 general election campaign, before becoming a speechwriter and political secretary to Major's successor as party leader, William Hague. Osborne was elec

First Secretaries of State of the United Kingdom

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English people of Hungarian-Jewish descent

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Advocates of the European Union

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George Cornewall Lewis

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George Cornewall Lewis

Sir George Cornewall Lewis, 2nd Baronet, PC (21 April 1806 – 13 April 1863) was a British statesman and man of letters. He is best known for preserving the peace in 1862 when the British cabinet debated intervention into the American Civil War. Proponents such as Chancellor of the Exchequer William Gladstone, Foreign Minister Russell and Prime Minister Palmerston favored the Confederacy. They worried about the danger of an extremely bloody race war in the United States, and wanted to restore the supply of urgently needed raw cotton for the Lancashire textile industry. Lewis was a strong opponent, warning that there were very high risks to British interests. His views finally prevailed and the British remained neutral throughout the Civil War.[1] Family He was born in London, the son of Thomas Frankland Lewis of Harpton Court, Radnorshire and his wife Harriet Cornewall. Thomas, after holding subordinate office in various administrations, became a poor-law commissioner, and was made a baronet in 1846. His ma

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Peter Thorneycroft

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Peter Thorneycroft

George Edward Peter Thorneycroft, Baron Thorneycroft, CH, PC (26 July 1909 – 4 June 1994) was a British Conservative Party politician. He served as Chancellor of the Exchequer between 1957 and 1958. Early life Born in Dunston, Staffordshire, Thorneycroft was the son of Major George Edward Mervyn Thorneycroft and Dorothy Hope Franklyn. He was the grandson of Sir William Franklyn and nephew of Sir Harold Franklyn.[1] He was educated at Eton and the Royal Military Academy, Woolwich. He was commissioned into the Royal Artillery as a second lieutenant on 29 August 1929 but resigned his commission on 1 July 1931.[2][3] In 1933, he was called to the bar for the Inner Temple. Political career He entered Parliament in the 1938 Stafford by-election, for the borough of Stafford. He was re-commissioned into the Royal Artillery in his previous rank on 30 August 1939.[4] During World War II, he served with the Royal Artillery and the general staff. Along with other members of the Tory Reform Committee, Thorneycroft pre

Presidents of the Board of Trade

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Conservative Party (UK) MPs for Welsh constitue...

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British barristers

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Philip Hammond

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Philip Hammond

Philip Hammond[1][2][3] (born 4 December 1955)[4] is a British former politician who was Chancellor of the Exchequer from 2016 to 2019 under Prime Minister Theresa May. He served as the Member of Parliament (MP) for Runnymede and Weybridge from 1997 to 2019. First elected as a Conservative, Hammond had the Conservative whip removed on 3 September 2019 for voting against the Boris Johnson government and subsequently sat as an independent MP. On 5 November 2019 he announced he would not stand for re-election in the December general election.[5] Hammond was born in Epping, Essex, and studied Philosophy, Politics and Economics at University College, Oxford. He worked from 1984 as a company director at Castlemead Ltd – a healthcare and nursing company. From 1995 to 1997 he acted as an adviser to the government of Malawi before his election to Parliament. He served in the Shadow Cabinets of Michael Howard and David Cameron as Shadow Chief Secretary to the Treasury and Shadow Secretary of State for Work and Pension

Independent members of the House of Commons of ...

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John Spencer, 3rd Earl Spencer

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John Spencer, 3rd Earl Spencer

John Charles Spencer, 3rd Earl Spencer, PC, DL, FRS (30 May 1782 – 1 October 1845), styled Viscount Althorp from 1783 to 1834, was a British statesman. He was Chancellor of the Exchequer under Lord Grey and Lord Melbourne from 1830 to 1834. Due to his reputation for integrity he was nicknamed "Honest Jack". Early years His father George Spencer, 2nd Earl Spencer had served in the ministries of Pitt the Younger, Charles James Fox and Lord Grenville, and was First Lord of the Admiralty (1794–1801). He was married to the eldest daughter of Lord Lucan. Their eldest son, John Charles, was born at Spencer House, London, on 30 May 1782. In 1800, after Harrow, he took up his residence at Trinity College, Cambridge,[1] and for some time applied himself energetically to mathematical studies; but he spent most of his time in hunting and racing. He was appointed a deputy lieutenant of Northamptonshire on 5 June 1803.[2] In 1804, he entered parliament as a member for Okehampton in Devon. He vacated his seat in 1806, to

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Robert Horne, 1st Viscount Horne of Slamannan

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Robert Horne, 1st Viscount Horne of Slamannan

Robert Stevenson Horne, 1st Viscount Horne of Slamannan, GBE, PC, KC (28 February 1871 – 3 September 1940) was a Scottish businessman, advocate and Unionist politician. He served under David Lloyd George as Minister of Labour between 1919 and 1920, as President of the Board of Trade between 1920 and 1921 and as Chancellor of the Exchequer between 1921 and 1922. In 1937 he was ennobled as Viscount Horne of Slamannan. Background and education Horne was born at Slamannan, Stirlingshire, the son of Reverend Robert Stevenson Horne, the village's Church of Scotland minister, and Mary, daughter of Thomas Lockhead. He was educated at George Watson's College in Edinburgh and the University of Glasgow, where he studied Law[1] and was President of the Students' Representative Council. Career until 1918 Horne then spent a year teaching philosophy at the University College of North Wales, before being elected to the Faculty of Advocates (Scottish Bar) in 1896.[1] He became a successful advocate, specialising in commer

Hillhead

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20th-century Royal Navy personnel

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Roy Jenkins

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Roy Jenkins

Roy Harris Jenkins, Baron Jenkins of Hillhead, OM, PC (11 November 1920 – 5 January 2003), was a British politician and the President of the European Commission from 1977 to 1981. He was at various times a member of the Labour Party, Social Democratic Party and the Liberal Democrats. The son of a Welsh coal-miner and trade unionist, himself later a Labour MP, Jenkins was educated at the University of Oxford and served as an intelligence officer during the Second World War. Elected to Parliament as a Labour MP in 1948, he went on to serve as both Chancellor of the Exchequer and Home Secretary under the Labour Governments of Harold Wilson and James Callaghan. In his first period as Home Secretary he sought to build what he described as "a civilised society", with measures such as the effective abolition in Britain of both capital punishment and theatre censorship, the partial decriminalisation of homosexuality, relaxing of divorce law, suspension of birching and the liberalisation of abortion law. As Chancello

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Charles Ritchie, 1st Baron Ritchie of Dundee

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Charles Ritchie, 1st Baron Ritchie of Dundee

Charles Thomson Ritchie, 1st Baron Ritchie of Dundee PC (19 November 1838 – 9 January 1906) was a British businessman and Conservative politician who sat in the House of Commons from 1874 until 1905 when he was raised to the peerage. He served as Home Secretary from 1900 to 1902 and as Chancellor of the Exchequer from 1902 to 1903. Background and education Ritchie was born at Dundee, Scotland, the third son of William Ritchie, of Rockhill near Broughty Ferry in Forfarshire, head of the firm of William Ritchie & Sons, of London and Dundee, East India merchants, jute spinners and manufacturers. The Ritchie family had long been connected with the town of Dundee. His elder brother James Thomson Ritchie was Lord Mayor of London from 1903 to 1904 and was created a Baronet in 1903 (a title which became extinct on his death. Ritchie was educated at the City of London School, after which he went into the family business. He married Margaret Ower, daughter of Thomas Ower of Perth, on 7 December 1858. Political

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Political Career of Rab Butler: 1929-1941

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Political Career of Rab Butler: 1929-1941

Richard Austen Butler, Baron Butler of Saffron Walden, KG, CH, PC, DL (9 December 1902 – 8 March 1982), generally known as R. A. Butler and familiarly known from his initials as Rab, was a prominent British Conservative politician. Butler was elected to Parliament for Saffron Walden in Essex at the 1929 General Election, and soon became a parliamentary assistant to Samuel Hoare, the leading Conservative politician associated with Indian policy. Butler attended the Second Round Table Conference and early in 1932 he visited India on Lord Lothian’s Franchise Committee, which recommended an increase in the Indian franchise. Butler became the youngest member of the government, aged 29, in September 1932 when he was appointed Under-Secretary for India. In this position he helped to steer the Government of India Act 1935, which granted provincial self-government to India, through the Commons, in the teeth of strong opposition from Winston Churchill, who spoke for much rank-and-file Conservative opinion in the count

Members of the Order of the Companions of Honour

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William Harcourt (politician)

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William Harcourt (politician)

Sir William George Granville Venables Vernon Harcourt, KC (14 October 1827 – 1 October 1904) was a British lawyer, journalist and Liberal statesman. He served as Member of Parliament for various constituencies and held the offices of Home Secretary and Chancellor of the Exchequer under William Ewart Gladstone before becoming Leader of the Opposition. A talented speaker in parliament, he was sometimes regarded as aloof and possessing only an intellectual involvement in his causes. He failed to engender much emotional response in the public and became only a reluctant and disillusioned leader of his party.[1] Family and ancestry Harcourt was the second son of the Rev. Canon William Vernon Harcourt, of Nuneham Park, Oxford and his wife Matilda Mary Gooch, daughter of Colonel William Gooch.[2] His father was himself the fourth son and eventually heir of Edward Harcourt, Archbishop of York[2] and his wife Lady Anne Leveson-Gower.[3] Anne was a daughter of Granville Leveson-Gower, 1st Marquess of Stafford and his

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Sajid Javid

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Sajid Javid

Sajid Javid (born 5 December 1969) is a British politician who has served as the Member of Parliament (MP) for Bromsgrove since 2010. A member of the Conservative Party, he was Home Secretary from 2018 to 2019 and Chancellor of the Exchequer from 2019 to 2020. Javid was the first British Asian to hold one of the Great Offices of State in the UK. Born in Rochdale, Lancashire to a British Pakistani family, Javid was raised largely in Bristol. He studied Economics and Politics at the University of Exeter, where he joined the Conservative Party. Working in banking, he rose to become a Managing Director at Deutsche Bank. Switching to politics, he was elected to Parliament in 2010. Under the government of Conservative Prime Minister David Cameron he served as a Junior Treasury Minister before being promoted to Cameron's Cabinet as Culture Secretary and Business Secretary. He went on to serve under Prime Minister Theresa May as Communities Secretary and Home Secretary. After May's resignation, Javid stood for Lead

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Rishi Sunak

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Rishi Sunak

Rishi Sunak (born 12 May 1980) is a British politician serving as Chancellor of the Exchequer since February 2020. He was appointed Chancellor by the Prime Minister, Boris Johnson, following the resignation of Sajid Javid during a Cabinet reshuffle in 2020. He previously served as Chief Secretary to the Treasury under Javid from July 2019 to February 2020, and has been the Member of Parliament (MP) for Richmond (Yorks) since the 2015 general election. Born in Southampton, Hampshire to an Indian Punjabi family, his early education was at Winchester College. Sunak subsequently studied Philosophy, Politics and Economics (PPE) at Lincoln College, Oxford, and later gained an MBA from Stanford University as a Fulbright scholar. After graduating, Sunak worked for major investment bank Goldman Sachs, and later as a Partner at the hedge fund management firm The Children's Investment Fund Management. Early life and education Sunak was born on 12 May 1980 in Southampton, Hampshire[1] to Yashvir and Usha Sunak.[2][3]

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