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Failed assassination attempt survivors


José Ramos-Horta

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José Ramos-Horta

José Manuel Ramos-Horta GColIH GCL (Portuguese pronunciation: ; born 26 December 1949) is an East Timorese politician who was the President of East Timor from 20 May 2007 to 20 May 2012. Previously he was Minister of Foreign Affairs from 2002 to 2006 and Prime Minister from 2006 to 2007. He is a co-recipient of the 1996 Nobel Peace Prize along with Carlos Filipe Ximenes Belo, for working "towards a just and peaceful solution to the conflict in East Timor". As a founder and former member of Fretilin, Ramos-Horta served as the exiled spokesman for the East Timorese resistance during the years of the Indonesian occupation of East Timor (1975–1999). While he continued to work with Fretilin, Ramos-Horta resigned from the party in 1988, becoming an independent politician.[1] After East Timor achieved independence in 2002, Ramos-Horta was appointed as the country's first foreign minister. He served in this position until his resignation on 25 June 2006, amidst political turmoil. On 26 June, following the resignati

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Iyabo Obasanjo-Bello

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Iyabo Obasanjo-Bello

Iyabo Obasanjo-Bello (born 27 April 1967) in Lagos Nigeria, is the daughter of former Nigerian President Mr Olusegun Obasanjo and his wife Oluremi Obasanjo.[1] Early life and education Obasanjo-Bello attended Corona School in Victoria Island, Lagos, Capital School in Kaduna, and Queen's College in Lagos. She obtained a degree in Veterinary Medicine from the University of Ibadan in 1988, a master's degree in Epidemiology from University of California, Davis in Davis, California, United States, in 1990, and a PhD in the same subject from Cornell University in Ithaca, New York, in 1994.[2] Political career Before her senatorial election, Obasanjo-Bello was Ogun State Commissioner for Health.[3] She was elected as a Nigerian Senator representing Ogun Central Senatorial District of Ogun State in April 2007.[3] She ran for re-election April 2011 on the PDP platform, but was defeated by Olugbenga Onaolapo Obadara of the Action Congress of Nigeria (ACN), who gained 102,389 votes to Obasanjo Bello's 56,312.[4] For

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21st-century Nigerian politicians

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Turgut Özal

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Turgut Özal

Halil Turgut Özal (Turkish pronunciation: ; 13 October 1927 – 17 April 1993) was a Turkish politician who served as the 8th President of Turkey from 1989 to 1993. He previously served as the 26th Prime Minister of Turkey from 1983 to 1989 as the leader of the Motherland Party. He was the Deputy Prime Minister of Turkey in the military government of Bülend Ulusu between 1980 and 1982. After working briefly at the World Bank in the United States and as a university lecturer, Özal became the general secretary and later the leader of the main miners' trade union of Turkey in 1979, serving as a chief negotiator during large-scale industrial action in 1977. He unsuccessfully stood for Parliament in the 1977 general election as a National Salvation Party (MSP) candidate from İzmir. In 1979, he became an undersecretary to Prime Minister Süleyman Demirel's minority government until the 1980 military coup. As an undersecretary, he played a major role in developing economic reforms, known as the '24 January decisions,'

People who died in office

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Ranasinghe Premadasa

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Ranasinghe Premadasa

Sri Lankabhimanya Ranasinghe Premadasa (Sinhala: රණසිංහ ප්‍රේමදාස,Tamil: ரணசிங்க பிரேமதாசா; 23 June 1924 – 1 May 1993)[1] was the third (Second Executive) President of Sri Lanka from 2 January 1989 to 1 May 1993. Before that, he served as the Prime Minister in the government headed by J. R. Jayewardene from 6 February 1978 to 1 January 1989. He was awarded Sri Lanka's highest award to a civilian Sri Lankabhimanya in 1986 by President Junius Richard Jayewardene, the first to receive in Sri Lankan history. He was assassinated in Colombo in a suicide bombing by the LTTE.[2][3] Early life 1 year old R. Premadasa with his parents in 1925. R.Premadasa in 1930. R. Premadasa was born on 23 June 1924 at Dias Place, Colombo 11, to the family of Richard Ranasinghe (Ranasinghe Mudalali) of Kosgoda and Jayasinghe Arachchige Ensina Hamine of Batuwita, Horana. R. Premadasa was the oldest of five children, three sisters, and one brother. He received his primary education at Harvard Girls’ School, Dam Street, Colombo,

People who died in office

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Vladimir Putin

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Vladimir Putin

Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin (Russian: Влади́мир Влади́мирович Пу́тин, romanized: Vladimir Vladimirovič Putin, Russian pronunciation: ; born 7 October 1952) is a Russian politician who has served as the President of Russia since 2012, previously holding the position from 1999 until 2008.[a][3][4][5] He was also the Prime Minister of Russia from 1999 to 2000 and again from 2008 to 2012. Putin was born in Leningrad (now Saint Petersburg) and studied law at Leningrad State University, graduating in 1975. Putin worked as a KGB foreign intelligence officer for 16 years, rising to the rank of Lieutenant Colonel, before resigning in 1991 to begin a political career in Saint Petersburg. He later moved to Moscow in 1996 to join the administration of President Boris Yeltsin, serving first as Director of the Federal Security Service (FSB), the KGB's successor agency, before being appointed as prime minister in August 1999. After the resignation of Yeltsin, Putin was elected in 2000 to succeed him. During his first ten

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Eastern Orthodox Christians from Russia

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Russian karateka

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Ibrahim Rugova

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Ibrahim Rugova

Ibrahim Rugova[1] (Albanian pronunciation: ; 2 December 1944 – 21 January 2006) was the first President of the partially recognised Republic of Kosova, serving from 1992 to 2000 and again from 2002 until his death in 2006, and a prominent Kosovo Albanian political leader, scholar, and writer. He oversaw a popular struggle for independence, advocating a peaceful resistance to Yugoslav rule and lobbying for U.S. and European support, especially during the Kosovo War. Owing to his role in Kosovo's history, Rugova has been dubbed "Father of the Nation" and "Gandhi of the Balkans". Rugova founded the political party Democratic League of Kosovo (LDK) in 1989. The LDK, which had the support of 90% of the ethnic Albanian population of Kosovo, advocated for Kosovo's independence by peaceful means. The party established a shadow government that provided basic government and social services to the Kosovo Albanian population, including education and health care, in effect creating a parallel state. In May 1992, Rugova wa

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Independence activists

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Paolo Sarpi

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Paolo Sarpi

Engraving of Fra Paolo Sarpi by George Vertue (1684–1756) Paolo Sarpi, Calcografia Bettoni, Milan, 1824 Paolo Sarpi (14 August 1552 – 15 January 1623) was a Venetian historian, prelate, scientist, canon lawyer, and statesman active on behalf of the Venetian Republic during the period of its successful defiance of the papal interdict (1605–1607) and its war (1615–1617) with Austria over the Uskok pirates. His writings, frankly polemical and highly critical of the Catholic Church and its Scholastic tradition, "inspired both Hobbes and Edward Gibbon in their own historical debunkings of priestcraft."[1] Sarpi's major work, the History of the Council of Trent (1619), was published in London in 1619; other works: a History of Ecclesiastical Benefices, History of the Interdict and his Supplement to the History of the Uskoks, appeared posthumously. Organized around single topics, they are early examples of the genre of the historical monograph.[2] As a defender of the liberties of Republican Venice and proponen

Italian historians

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Mikheil Saakashvili

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Mikheil Saakashvili

Mikheil Saakashvili (Georgian: მიხეილ სააკაშვილი, romanized: Mikheil Saak’ashvili, IPA: ; Ukrainian: Міхеіл Саакашвілі, romanized: Mikheil Saakashvili, IPA: ; born 21 December 1967) is a Georgian and Ukrainian politician.[7][8] He was the third President of Georgia for two consecutive terms from 25 January 2004 to 17 November 2013. From May 2015 until November 2016, Saakashvili was the Governor of Ukraine's Odessa Oblast.[1][9] He is the founder and former chairman of the United National Movement party. Involved in Georgian politics since 1995, Saakashvili became president in January 2004 after President Eduard Shevardnadze resigned in the November 2003 bloodless "Rose Revolution" led by Saakashvili and his political allies, Nino Burjanadze and Zurab Zhvania. He was re-elected in the Georgian presidential election on 5 January 2008. While his first term was marred by political quagmire, his second term saw unprecedented economic growth (averaging GDP increases of 10% a year), as well as drastic drops in ende

Heads of regimes who were later imprisoned

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Advocates of the European Union

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Salman Rushdie

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Salman Rushdie

Sir Ahmed Salman Rushdie[a] FRSL (born 19 June 1947) is a British Indian novelist and essayist.[3] His second novel, Midnight's Children (1981), won the Booker Prize in 1981 and was deemed to be "the best novel of all winners" on two separate occasions, marking the 25th and the 40th anniversary of the prize. Much of his fiction is set on the Indian subcontinent. He combines magical realism with historical fiction; his work is concerned with the many connections, disruptions, and migrations between Eastern and Western civilizations. His fourth novel, The Satanic Verses (1988), was the subject of a major controversy, provoking protests from Muslims in several countries. Death threats were made against him, including a fatwā calling for his assassination issued by Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, the Supreme Leader of Iran, on 14 February 1989. The British government put Rushdie under police protection. In 1983, Rushdie was elected a fellow of the Royal Society of Literature, the UK's senior literary organisation.

American critics of Islam

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Critics of religions

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Ali Abdullah Saleh

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Ali Abdullah Saleh

Ali Abdullah Saleh (Arabic: علي عبدالله صالح , ʿAlī ʿAbdullāh Ṣāliḥ; 21 March 1947[1][note 1][2] – 4 December 2017) was a Yemeni politician who served as the first President of Yemen, from Yemeni unification on 22 May 1990 to his resignation on 25 February 2012, following the Yemeni Revolution.[3] Previously, he had served as President of the Yemen Arab Republic, or North Yemen, from July 1978 to 22 May 1990, after the assassination of President Ahmad al-Ghashmi.[4] Saleh developed deeper ties with Western powers, especially the United States, in the War on Terror. Terrorism may have been used and encouraged by Ali Abdullah Saleh to win Western support and for disruptive politically motivated attacks.[5][6] In 2011, in the wake of the Arab Spring, which spread across North Africa and the Middle East (including Yemen), Saleh's time in office became more and more untenable until eventually he was ousted as President in 2012. He was succeeded by Abdrabbuh Mansur Hadi, who had been Vice-President since 1994. I

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Critics of Islamism

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Steve Scalise

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Steve Scalise

Stephen Joseph Scalise (born October 6, 1965)[1] is an American politician who is the United States House of Representatives Minority Whip and representative for Louisiana's 1st congressional district, serving since 2008. The district includes most of New Orleans's suburbs, as well as a small sliver of New Orleans itself. He is a member of the Republican Party[2][3] and was the chair of the conservative House Republican Study Committee.[4] Prior to his congressional tenure, Scalise served for four months in the Louisiana State Senate and twelve years in the Louisiana House of Representatives. On June 19, 2014, Scalise was elected by his Republican colleagues to serve as Majority Whip of the United States House of Representatives. He assumed office on August 1. He is the first Louisianian in the Majority Whip's position since Democrat Hale Boggs of Louisiana's 2nd congressional district held the position from 1962 to 1971. In 2017, Scalise became the dean of the Louisiana Congressional delegation upon the ret

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Archbishop Rummel High School alumni

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Wolfgang Schäuble

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Wolfgang Schäuble

Wolfgang Schäuble (; born 18 September 1942) is a German lawyer and politician of the Christian Democratic Union (CDU) party whose political career has spanned more than four decades. He is one of the most experienced and longest serving politicians in German history and since 2017 has been the President of the Bundestag. Born in Freiburg Im Breisgau in 1942,[1] Schäuble studied at both the University of Freiburg and the University of Hamburg and subsequently began a career in law at the district court of Offenburg in 1978. His political career began in 1969 as a member of the Junge Union, the youth division of the CDU and CSU; in 1972, Schäuble was elected to the Bundestag by winning the constituency seat of Offenburg, and he was still a member of the Bundestag in 2017. His ministerial career began in 1984 when he was appointed Minister for Special Affairs by Chancellor Helmut Kohl. In a 1989 reshuffle, Schäuble was appointed Minister of the Interior, and he led negotiations for reunification on behalf of t

People Who Have Studied Law and Economics

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People with paraplegia

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Mohammed Zahir Shah

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Mohammed Zahir Shah

Mohammed Zahir Shah (Pashto: محمد ظاهرشاه‎, Persian: محمد ظاهر شاه‎; 15 October 1914 – 23 July 2007) was the last King of Afghanistan, reigning from 8 November 1933 until he was deposed on 17 July 1973. He expanded Afghanistan's diplomatic relations with many countries, including with both Cold War sides.[3] In the 1950s, Zahir Shah began modernizing the country following the example of Turkey. His long reign was marked by peace and stability that was lost afterwards. While staying in Italy for medical treatment, Zahir Shah was overthrown in a surprise coup in 1973 by his cousin and former prime minister, Mohammed Daoud Khan, who established a republic. He remained in exile near Rome until 2002, returning to Afghanistan after the end of the Taliban government. He was given the title Father of the Nation, which he held until his death in 2007.[2] Family background and early life 5 September 1963 Dinner in honour of King Mohammad Zahir Shah of Afghanistan with John F. Kennedy Zahir Shah was born on 15 Oct

1940s in Afghanistan

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Eduard Shevardnadze

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Eduard Shevardnadze

Eduard Ambrosiyevich Shevardnadze (Georgian: ედუარდ ამბროსის ძე შევარდნაძე, Eduard Ambrosis dze Ševardnadze; 25 January 1928 – 7 July 2014) was a Georgian politician and diplomat. He served as First Secretary of the Georgian Communist Party (GPC), the de facto leader of Soviet Georgia from 1972 to 1985 and as Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Soviet Union from 1985 to 1991. Shevardnadze was responsible for many key decisions in Soviet foreign policy during the Gorbachev Era including reunification of Germany. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union, he was President of Georgia (or in equivalent posts) from 1992 to 2003. He was forced to retire in 2003 as a consequence of the bloodless Rose Revolution. Shevardnadze started his political career in the late 1940s as a leading member of his local Komsomol organisation. He was later appointed its Second Secretary, then its First Secretary. His rise in the Georgian Soviet hierarchy continued until 1961 when he was demoted after he insulted a senior official

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Ninth convocation members of the Supreme Soviet...

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Atef Sedky

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Atef Sedky

Atef Mohamed Naguib Sedky (29 August 1930 – 25 February 2005) (Arabic: عاطف محمد نجيب صدقى‎, IPA: ) was the Prime Minister of Egypt from 1986 until 1996. He replaced Aly Mahmoud Lotfy on November 10, 1986. Biography Sedky was born in the Nile Delta city of Tanta. He was a lawyer and economist by training, receiving a doctorate in economics from the University of Paris in France. Before becoming Prime Minister, he was the director of the Egyptian Central Auditing Organization. In 2004, Sedky fractured his thigh. He died on 25 February 2005 at a Cairo hospital. Sedky and his German-born wife, Ursula, had two children Ahmed and Sherif. Political career As prime minister, Sedky supervised and sometimes criticised reforms suggested by the International Monetary Fund. In November 1993, he survived an assassination attempt in Cairo by the militant Islamic group Vanguards of Conquest, which resulted in the death of a schoolgirl called Shaimaa. On 2 January 1996, he along with his cabinet resigned; his post was fi

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People from Tanta

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Sukarno

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Sukarno

Sukarno[a] ([2] born Kusno Sosrodihardjo, Javanese: ; 6 June 1901 – 21 June 1970)[3] was an Indonesian politician who was the first president of Indonesia, serving from 1945 to 1967. Sukarno was the leader of the Indonesian struggle for independence from the Dutch Empire. He was a prominent leader of Indonesia's nationalist movement during the Dutch colonial period and spent over a decade under Dutch detention until released by the invading Japanese forces in World War II. Sukarno and his fellow nationalists collaborated to garner support for the Japanese war effort from the population, in exchange for Japanese aid in spreading nationalist ideas. Upon Japanese surrender, Sukarno and Mohammad Hatta declared Indonesian independence on 17 August 1945, and Sukarno was appointed as its president. He led Indonesians in resisting Dutch re-colonisation efforts via diplomatic and military means until the Dutch recognition of Indonesian independence in 1949. Author Pramoedya Ananta Toer once wrote, "Sukarno was the on

Muslim socialists

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Guillaume Soro

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Guillaume Soro

Guillaume Kigbafori Soro (born 8 May 1972) is an Ivorian politician who was the Prime Minister of Côte d'Ivoire from April 2007 to March 2012. Prior to his service as Prime Minister, Soro led the Patriotic Movement of Côte d'Ivoire, and later the New Forces as its Secretary-General.[1][2] In March 2012, Soro became President of the National Assembly of Côte d'Ivoire. He stepped down from that position in February 2019, announcing in June 2019 that he is running to succeed President Alassane Ouattara. [3] Ivorian Civil War Soro led the Patriotic Movement of Côte d'Ivoire (MPCI) in a September 2002 rebellion against President Laurent Gbagbo that triggered the Ivorian Civil War. In December 2002 Soro's MPCI combined with two other rebel groups, the Ivorian Popular Movement of the Great West (MPIGO) and the Movement for Justice and Peace (MJP), to form the New Forces (Forces Nouvelles de Côte d'Ivoire). He was appointed as Secretary-General of the New Forces. Political career Following a peace agreement in Ja

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Ivorian military personnel

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Joseph Stalin

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Joseph Stalin

Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin[b] (born Ioseb Besarionis dzе Djugashvili;[a] 18 December [O.S. 6 December] 1878[1] – 5 March 1953) was a Georgian revolutionary and Soviet politician who led the Soviet Union from the mid–1920s until 1953 as the general secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (1922–1952) and premier of the Soviet Union (1941–1953). Despite initially governing the Soviet Union as part of a collective leadership, he eventually consolidated power to become the country's de facto dictator by the 1930s. A communist ideologically committed to the Leninist interpretation of Marxism, Stalin formalised these ideas as Marxism–Leninism, while his own policies are known as Stalinism. Born to a poor family in Gori in the Russian Empire (now Georgia), Stalin joined the Marxist Russian Social Democratic Labour Party as a youth. He edited the party's newspaper, Pravda, and raised funds for Vladimir Lenin's Bolshevik faction via robberies, kidnappings, and protection rackets. Repeatedly arrested, he

Soviet politicians

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Recipients of the Order of Victory

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Russian communists

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Josip Broz Tito

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Josip Broz Tito

Josip Broz (Serbian Cyrilic: Јосип Броз, pronounced ; 7 May 1892 – 4 May 1980), commonly known as Tito ([1] Serbian Cyrilic: Тито, pronounced ), was a Yugoslav communist revolutionary and statesman, serving in various roles from 1943 until his death in 1980.[2] During World War II, he was the leader of the Partisans, often regarded as the most effective resistance movement in occupied Europe.[3] He also served as the President of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia from 14 January 1953 to 4 May 1980. His presidency has been criticized as authoritarian,[4][5] and concerns about the repression of political opponents have been raised. Tito has been seen by some as a benevolent dictator,[6] whereas many crimes against humanity he and his followers committed, mostly after World War Two, have beenattracting more attention in recent decades. Tito has been recognized as one of the "lesser megamurderers" with an estimate of more than a million (1,072,000) victims.[7] Among many left leaning public he was a p

Croatian Marxists

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People of the Cold War

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Stephen Timms

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Stephen Timms

Stephen Creswell Timms (born 29 July 1955) is a British Labour Party politician who has been the Member of Parliament (MP) for East Ham since 1997. He has sat in Parliament since retaining the earlier Newham North East seat for his party at a 1994 by-election. Timms served in the government for several periods as the Financial Secretary to the Treasury, from 1999 to 2001, 2004 to 2005, and 2008 to 2010. He was also in the Cabinet from 2006 to 2007 as the Chief Secretary to the Treasury from 2006 to 2007.[1] In May 2010, Timms survived an attempted murder by Islamic terrorist Roshonara Choudhry who stabbed him twice in the abdomen at his constituency surgery. His attacker was convicted of attempted murder and sentenced to life imprisonment. He returned to the backbenches in September 2015, after being offered a junior shadow Treasury job by his party leader Jeremy Corbyn.[2] Early life Timms was born in Oldham, Lancashire, to Ronald James Timms, an engineer, and Margaret Joyce Timms, a teacher.[3][4] He wa

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Councillors in the London Borough of Newham

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Peter Terry

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Peter Terry

Air Chief Marshal Sir Peter David George Terry, GCB, AFC (18 October 1926 – 19 December 2017)[1] was a senior Royal Air Force commander who held a number of high-level British and NATO posts. Terry was Governor of Gibraltar from 1985 to 1989. Royal Air Force career Terry joined the Royal Air Force in the ranks as an RAF Regiment aircraftman 2nd class on 17 July 1946.[2] His potential for officer service was quickly recognised and Terry was commissioned as a pilot officer in the RAF Regiment on 29 May 1947.[3] Spending the next nine years as a junior officer in the RAF Regiment, serving on LIght Anti-Aircraft sqns in RAF Germany and as Personal Staff Officer to the Commandant-General of the RAF Regiment. He transferred to the General Duties Branch in April 1956.[4] During the later 1950s and 1960s, he worked his way up the officer ranks. As a group captain, Terry was station commander of RAF El Adem, Libya, from 1969–1970. He was there in September 1969 when Colonel Gaddafi overthrew King Idris of Libya in a

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Royal Air Force Regiment officers

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Anvar-qori Tursunov

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Anvar-qori Tursunov

Anvar-qori Tursunov (Uzbek: Анвар қори Турсунов; Russian: Анвар-кори Турсунов) is a prominent imam-khatib at the Kukeldash mosque in Tashkent, Uzbekistan. He was stabbed several times on 31 July 2009, but recovered. Activities Tursunov fights actively against "extremist" Islamic activity in Uzbekistan, and often serves as a witness for the prosecution in trials for suspected members of outlawed Islamic groups such as Hizb-ut-Tahrir and the Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan.[1] He has called for Uzbek Muslims to resist "foreign influences", such as wearing the hijab.[2] He espoused many of his views on his television program Hidoyat Sari (Towards Guidance).[3] He has been mentioned as a possible successor to the post of Chief Mufti of Uzbekistan, the head of the Muslim Board of Uzbekistan.[4] Stabbing At 10:30pm on 31 July 2009, Tursunov was at his home in the Yangi-Abad district when there was a knock on his door. His son answered the door, and was told his father was being invited to a religious function.

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Uzbekistani Muslims

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Onyema Ugochukwu

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Onyema Ugochukwu

Onyema Ugochukwu Onyema Ugochukwu (born 9 November 1944), CON is a Nigerian economist, journalist, and politician. Ugochukwu served as the senior Special Adviser on Communication to Nigerian President Olusegun Obasanjo and the first Executive Chairman of the Niger Delta Development Commission (NDDC).[1][2] On 25 February 2008, an Abia State elections tribunal declared Ugochukwu the winner of the 2007 gubernatorial election and Governor-elect of Abia State.[3] However, on 11 February 2009 an appeal court in Port Harcourt overturned the ruling, declaring that Theodore Orji of the PPA had in fact won the election.[4] Early life Onyema Ugochukwu was born on 9 November 1944 in Umuahia, Abia State, Nigeria. He graduated from the University of Nigeria, Nsukka, with a BSc in Economics. He is married with four children. Biafran War The political turmoil which followed the first military coup in 1966 escalated into a civil war when the south-east region of Nigeria seceded as the Republic of Biafra a year later. Ug

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Nigerian Methodists

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Jorge Rafael Videla

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Jorge Rafael Videla

Jorge Rafael Videla Redondo [1](Spanish: ; 2 August 1925 – 17 May 2013) was a senior commander in the Argentine Army and dictator of Argentina from 1976 to 1981. He came to power in a coup d'état that deposed Isabel Martínez de Perón. In 1985, two years after the return of a representative democratic government, he was prosecuted in the Trial of the Juntas for large-scale human rights abuses and crimes against humanity that took place under his rule, including kidnappings or forced disappearance, widespread torture and extrajudicial murder of activists and political opponents as well as their families at secret concentration camps. An estimated 13,000[2]to 30,000[3] political dissidents vanished during this period. Videla was also convicted of the theft of many babies born during the captivity of their mothers at the illegal detention centres and passing them on for illegal adoption by associates of the regime. In his defence, Videla maintained the female guerrilla detainees allowed themselves to fall pregna

Argentine Roman Catholics

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Georgios Voulgarakis

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Georgios Voulgarakis

Georgios Voulgarakis (Greek: Γιώργος Βουλγαράκης) (born 4 June 1959 in Heraklion) is a Greek politician and the former Minister for Mercantile Marine, Aegean Sea and Island Policy. Voulgarakis was born in Crete[1] and holds a PhD in Political Marketing and Communication from the University of Athens. He is a member of the New Democracy party. He has been elected to parliament from the Athens A' Election Area constituency since the June 1989 parliamentary election and served as Deputy Minister for the Environment, Spatial Planning and Public Works from 3 December 1992 to 12 October 1993.[1] He was Minister of Public Order in the government of Prime Minister Costas Karamanlis from 10 March 2004,[2] at the difficult period of Athens Olympic Games 2004, until a cabinet reshuffle on 14 February 2006, when he was named Minister of Culture instead. This was considered a demotion in the wake of a phone-tapping scandal.[3][4] A Greek prosecutor has backed claims by a group of Pakistani men that they were abducted by

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Wilhelm II, German Emperor

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Wilhelm II, German Emperor

Wilhelm II or William II (German: Friedrich Wilhelm Viktor Albert; 27 January 1859 – 4 June 1941) was the last German Emperor (Kaiser) and King of Prussia. He reigned from 15 June 1888 until his abdication on 9 November 1918 shortly before Germany's defeat in World War I. As the eldest grandchild of Queen Victoria, Wilhelm's first cousins included King George V of the United Kingdom and many princesses who, along with Wilhelm's sister Sophia, became European consorts. For most of his life before becoming emperor, he was second in line to succeed his grandfather Wilhelm I on the German and Prussian thrones after his father, Frederick. His grandfather and father both died in 1888, the Year of Three Emperors, making Wilhelm emperor and king. He dismissed the country's longtime chancellor, Otto von Bismarck, in 1890. Upon consolidating power as emperor, Wilhelm launched Germany on a bellicose "New Course" to cement its status as a respected world power. However, he frequently undermined this goal by making tact

Knights of the Golden Fleece of Spain

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Ezenwo Nyesom Wike

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Ezenwo Nyesom Wike

Ezenwo Nyesom Wike CON (born 13 March 1963), also known variously as Ezebunwo Nyesom Wike, Nyesom Ezenwo Wike, Nyesom Ezebunwo Wike or Nyesom Wike is a Nigerian politician and lawyer who is the sixth and current Governor of Rivers State. He is an Ikwerre from Rumuepirikom in Obio-Akpor, Rivers State. He is a member of the People's Democratic Party and was educated at Rivers State University of Science and Technology. Wike was appointed Minister of State for Education on 14 July 2011. Wike was later appointed the Acting Minister of Education, after Mrs Riqqayatu was sacked but resigned before finishing his term to campaign for Governor of Rivers State. He was replaced by Viola Onwuliri.[1] In 2014, he won the Rivers State People's Democratic Party primary and chose former Secretary to the State Government Ipalibo Banigo as his running mate for deputy governor. Wike defeated Dakuku Peterside of the people's democratic party (PDP) and Tonye Princewill of the Labour Party in the April 11 gubernatorial elections

Rivers State University alumni

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Willem-Alexander of the Netherlands

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Willem-Alexander of the Netherlands

Willem-Alexander (Dutch: ; born Willem-Alexander Claus George Ferdinand; 27 April 1967) is King of the Netherlands, having acceded to the throne following his mother's abdication in 2013. Willem-Alexander was born in Utrecht as the oldest child of Princess Beatrix and diplomat Claus van Amsberg. He became Prince of Orange as heir apparent upon his mother's accession as Queen on 30 April 1980, and succeeded her following her abdication on 30 April 2013. He went to public primary and secondary schools, served in the Royal Netherlands Navy, and studied history at Leiden University. He married Máxima Zorreguieta Cerruti in 2002 and they have three daughters: Catharina-Amalia, Princess of Orange (born 2003), Princess Alexia (born 2005), and Princess Ariane (born 2007). Willem-Alexander is interested in sports and international water management issues. Until his accession to the throne, he was a member of the International Olympic Committee (1998–2013),[1] chairman of the Advisory Committee on Water to the Dutch

Reigning Protestant monarchs

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Malala Yousafzai

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Malala Yousafzai

Malala Yousafzai (Urdu: ملالہ یوسفزئی‎; Pashto: ملاله یوسفزۍ‎ ;[2] born 12 July 1997),[2][3] also known mononymously as Malala, is a Pakistani activist for female education and the youngest Nobel Prize laureate.[4] She is known for human rights advocacy, especially the education of women and children in her native Swat Valley in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, northwest Pakistan, where the local Taliban had at times banned girls from attending school. Her advocacy has grown into an international movement, and according to former Pakistani Prime Minister Shahid Khaqan Abbasi, she has become "the most prominent citizen" of the country.[5] Yousafzai was born to a Pashtun family in Mingora, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Her family came to run a chain of schools in the region. Considering Muhammad Ali Jinnah and Benazir Bhutto as her role models, she was particularly inspired by her father's thoughts and humanitarian work.[6] In early 2009, when she was 11–12, she wrote a blog under a pseudonym for the BBC Urdu detailing her

Proponents of Islamic feminism

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Viktor Yushchenko

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Viktor Yushchenko

Viktor Andriyovych Yushchenko (Ukrainian: Віктор Андрійович Ющенко, IPA:  (listen); born 23 February 1954) is a Ukrainian politician who was the third President of Ukraine from 23 January 2005 to 25 February 2010. As an informal leader of the Ukrainian opposition coalition, he was one of the two main candidates in the 2004 Ukrainian presidential election. Yushchenko won the presidency through a repeat runoff election between him and Prime Minister Viktor Yanukovych. The Ukrainian Supreme Court called for the runoff election to be repeated because of widespread electoral fraud in favor of Viktor Yanukovych in the original vote. Yushchenko won in the revote (52% to 44%). Public protests prompted by the electoral fraud played a major role in that presidential election and led to Ukraine's Orange Revolution. Following an assassination attempt in late 2004 during his election campaign, Yushchenko was confirmed to have ingested hazardous amounts of TCDD, the most potent dioxin and a contaminant in Agent Orange. H

Government of Viktor Yushchenko

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Yunus-bek Yevkurov

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Yunus-bek Yevkurov

Yunus-Bek Bamatgireyevich Yevkurov (Russian: Юну́с-Бек Баматгире́евич Евку́ров; Ingush: Е́вкурнаь́къан Ба́матгири Ю́нусбек; born 23 July 1963) is an Ingush politician. He was the head of the southern Russian republic of Ingushetia, appointed by President Dmitry Medvedev, from 31 October 2008 to 24 June 2019.[2][3] The following day, the People's Assembly of the Republic of Ingushetia, the republic's regional parliament, voted in favor of Yevkurov's appointment, making him the third Head of Ingushetia.[4] He is a career soldier, paratrooper, and Hero of the Russian Federation who was involved in numerous conflicts where Russia played a key role, including Kosovo (1999) and Chechnya.[1] On 22 June 2009, Yevkurov was seriously injured following a car-bomb attack on his motorcade in the city of Nazran. On 23 October 2011, Yevkurov was again a target of an attack whilst on a national holiday.[5] As head of Ingushetia, Yevkurov claimed he had succeeded in stabilising the crime situation and bringing about positive

Ryazan Guards Higher Airborne Command School al...

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Murat Zyazikov

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Murat Zyazikov

Murat Magometovich Zyazikov (Russian: Мура́т Магоме́тович Зя́зиков) (born September 10, 1957) is an Ingush politician who was the second president of the southern Russian republic of Ingushetia. He was born in what is now Kyrgyzstan. Zyazikov was a controversial politician in Ingushetia. Political career In the 1980s, Zyazikov was a member of the KGB and later the FSB. In the 1990s, he became part of Ingushetia's security council and on May 23, 2002, he was elected president of the republic in the controversial circumstances. Zyazikov is considered a close ally with current Russian president and former Prime Minister Vladimir Putin, especially because of his province's proximity to Chechnya. On April 6, 2004, Zyazikov was lightly wounded when a car bomb was rammed into his motorcade (he sat in an armored Mercedes W140) on the main road near the city of Nazran.[1] Zyazikov blamed Chechen rebels for that attack and a June 2004 raid in Ingushetia that killed more than 90 people. On February 27, 2006, Zyaziko

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Alfredo Stroessner

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Alfredo Stroessner

Alfredo Stroessner Matiauda (Spanish: ; November 3, 1912 – August 16, 2006) was a Paraguayan Army officer who served as President of Paraguay from 1954 to 1989. He ascended to the position after leading an army coup in 1954. His 35-year-long rule, marked by an uninterrupted period of repression in his country, is the longest in modern South American history. Stroessner's rule is ranked 20th-longest among non-royal national leaders since 1900 and made him one of the world's longest-serving non-royal heads of state. In 1954, he ousted Federico Chávez, becoming president after winning an election in which he was the sole candidate. As an anti-communist, Stroessner had the backing of the United States for most of his time in power. His supporters packed the legislature and ran the courts, and he ruthlessly suppressed all opposition. He kept his country in what he called a constant "state of siege" that overruled civil liberties, enforced a cult of personality, and tortured and killed political opponents. Members

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Gurbanguly Berdimuhamedow

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Gurbanguly Berdimuhamedow

Gurbanguly Mälikgulyýewiç Berdimuhamedow[a][b][c][d] (born 29 June 1957)[11] is a Turkmen politician who has been serving as the President of Turkmenistan since February 2007. Berdimuhamedow, a dentist by profession, served in the government under President Saparmurat Niyazov as Minister of Health beginning in 1997 and as Vice-President beginning in 2001. He became Acting President following Niyazov's death on 21 December 2006 and subsequently won the February 2007 presidential election. He faced no meaningful opposition in the vote and won by an overwhelming margin (89.23%).[12] In the February 2012 presidential election, he was re-elected with 97% of the vote. In the February 2017 presidential election, he was re-elected to a third term with 97.69% of the votes.[13][14] As with his predecessor, a personality cult is promoted around Berdimuhamedow. According to Human Rights Watch, Berdimuhamedow, his relatives, and his associates possess unlimited power and exercise total control over all aspects of public

Current events

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Hosni Mubarak

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Hosni Mubarak

Muhammad Hosni El Sayed Mubarak[a] (4 May 1928 – 25 February 2020) was an Egyptian military and political leader who served as the fourth president of Egypt from 1981 to 2011. Before he entered politics, Mubarak was a career officer in the Egyptian Air Force. He served as its commander from 1972 to 1975 and rose to the rank of air chief marshal in 1973.[2] He assumed the presidency after President Anwar Sadat's assassination in 1981. Mubarak's presidency lasted almost thirty years, making him Egypt's longest-serving ruler since Muhammad Ali Pasha, who ruled the country for 43 years from 1805 to 1848.[3] Mubarak stepped down during the Egyptian Revolution of 2011 after 18 days of demonstrations.[4] On 11 February 2011, former Vice President Omar Suleiman announced that Mubarak and he had resigned as president and vice president respectively and transferred authority to the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces.[5][6] On 13 April 2011, a prosecutor ordered Mubarak and both of his sons (Alaa and Gamal) to be det

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Emomali Rahmon

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Emomali Rahmon

Emomali Rahmon (Tajik: Эмомалӣ Раҳмон, romanized: Emomalî Rahmon/Emomalī Rahmon;[1] born 5 October 1952) is a Tajikistani politician who has served as President of Tajikistan (or its equivalent post) since 1994.[2][3] His rule is regarded by Human Rights Watch as a dictatorship.[4][5] Early life Rahmon was born as Emomali Sharipovich Rakhmonov (Russian: Эмомали́ Шари́пович Рахмо́нов, romanized: Emomali Šaripovič Rahmonov)[6] to Sharif Rahmonov and Mayram Sharifova, a peasant family in Danghara,[7] Kulob Oblast (present-day Khatlon province). From 1971 to 1974 he served in the Soviet Union's Pacific Fleet. After completing the military service, Rahmon returned to his native village where he worked for some time as an electrician.[8] As rising apparatchik in Tajikistan, he became a chairman of the collective state farm of his native Danghara. According to his official biography, Rahmon graduated from the Tajik State National University with a specialist's degree in Economics in 1982. After working for severa

Critics of Islamism

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Menachem Begin

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Menachem Begin

Menachem Begin (Hebrew: מְנַחֵם בֵּגִין Menaḥem Begin (listen ); Polish: Mieczysław Biegun; Russian: Менахем Вольфович Бегин Menakhem Volfovich Begin; 16 August 1913 – 9 March 1992) was an Israeli politician, founder of Likud and the sixth Prime Minister of Israel. Before the creation of the state of Israel, he was the leader of the Zionist militant group Irgun, the Revisionist breakaway from the larger Jewish paramilitary organization Haganah. He proclaimed a revolt, on 1 February 1944, against the British mandatory government, which was opposed by the Jewish Agency. As head of the Irgun, he targeted the British in Palestine.[1] Later, the Irgun fought the Arabs during the 1947–48 Civil War in Mandatory Palestine. Begin was elected to the first Knesset, as head of Herut, the party he founded, and was at first on the political fringe, embodying the opposition to the Mapai-led government and Israeli establishment. He remained in opposition in the eight consecutive elections (except for a national unity govern

Israeli anti-communists

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Che Guevara

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Che Guevara

Ernesto "Che" Guevara ([3]Spanish: [4] 14 June 1928[5] – 9 October 1967) was an Argentine Marxist revolutionary, physician, author, guerrilla leader, diplomat, and military theorist. A major figure of the Cuban Revolution, his stylized visage has become a ubiquitous countercultural symbol of rebellion and global insignia in popular culture.[6] As a young medical student, Guevara traveled throughout South America and was radicalized by the poverty, hunger, and disease he witnessed.[7][8] His burgeoning desire to help overturn what he saw as the capitalist exploitation of Latin America by the United States prompted his involvement in Guatemala's social reforms under President Jacobo Árbenz, whose eventual CIA-assisted overthrow at the behest of the United Fruit Company solidified Guevara's political ideology.[7] Later in Mexico City, Guevara met Raúl and Fidel Castro, joined their 26th of July Movement, and sailed to Cuba aboard the yacht Granma with the intention of overthrowing U.S.-backed Cuban dictator Ful

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Imelda Marcos

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Imelda Marcos

Imelda Romualdez Marcos[2] (born Imelda Trinidad Romualdez; 2 July 1929) is a Filipino politician who was First Lady of the Philippines for 21 years,[3] during which she and her husband are widely believed to have illegally amassed a multi-billion U.S. dollar personal fortune,[4][5][6][7] the bulk of which still remains unrecovered.[8] Her fortune was estimated to be at $24bn in 1979, and today is estimated to be at least $30bn. She owned 3,000 pairs of shoes and imported giraffes because she could.[9] She married Ferdinand Marcos in 1954 and became First Lady in 1965 when he became President of the Philippines.[10] Her behaviour of initiating numerous grand architectural projects using public funds,[11][12] came to be described in common parlance as Imeldific.[13][14] She and her family gained notoriety for living a lavish lifestyle during a period of economic crisis and civil unrest in the country.[15] She spent much of her time abroad on state visits, extravagant parties, and shopping sprees, and spent m

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William I, German Emperor

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William I, German Emperor

William I or Wilhelm I[2] (German: Wilhelm Friedrich Ludwig; 22 March 1797 – 9 March 1888) of the House of Hohenzollern was King of Prussia from 2 January 1861 and the first German Emperor from 18 January 1871 to his death. William was the first head of state of a united Germany, and was also de facto head of state of Prussia from 1858 to 1861, serving as regent for his brother, Frederick William IV. Under the leadership of William and his Minister President Otto von Bismarck, Prussia achieved the unification of Germany and the establishment of the German Empire. Despite his long support of Bismarck as Minister President, William held strong reservations about some of Bismarck's more reactionary policies, including his anti-Catholicism and tough handling of subordinates. In contrast to the domineering Bismarck, William was described as polite, gentlemanly and, while staunchly conservative, more open to certain classical liberal ideas than his grandson Wilhelm II, during whose reign he was known as Wilhelm th

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Fulgencio Batista

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Fulgencio Batista

Fulgencio Batista y Zaldívar ([1] Spanish: ; born Rubén Zaldívar;[2] January 16, 1901 – August 6, 1973) was a Cuban military officer and politician who served as the elected President of Cuba from 1940 to 1944, and as its U.S.-backed military dictator from 1952 to 1959, before being overthrown during the Cuban Revolution. Batista initially rose to power as part of the 1933 Revolt of the Sergeants, which overthrew the provisional government of Carlos Manuel de Céspedes y Quesada. He then appointed himself chief of the armed forces, with the rank of colonel, and effectively controlled the five-member "pentarchy" that functioned as the collective head of state. He maintained this control through a string of puppet presidents until 1940, when he was himself elected President of Cuba on a populist platform.[3][4] He then instated the 1940 Constitution of Cuba [5] and served until 1944. After finishing his term he lived in Florida, returning to Cuba to run for president in 1952. Facing certain electoral defeat, he

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Syngman Rhee

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Syngman Rhee

Syngman Rhee (Korean: 이승만, pronounced [note 1]; 26 March 1875 – 19 July 1965) was a South Korean politician who served as the first President of South Korea, from 1948 to 1960. Rhee was also the first and last president of the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea from 1919 to his impeachment in 1925 and from 1947 to 1948. As President of South Korea, Rhee's government was characterised by authoritarianism, corruption, limited economic development, strong anti-communism and by the late 1950s growing political instability and public opposition. He imbued the country with a tradition of authoritarian rule that lasted, with a few short breaks, until 1988. Born in Hwanghae Province, Joseon, Rhee attended an American Methodist school, where he converted to Christianity. He became involved in anti-Japanese activities after the 1894–95 First Sino-Japanese War and was imprisoned in 1899. Released in 1904, he moved to the United States, where he obtained degrees from American universities and met President

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Nelson Mandela

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Nelson Mandela

Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela ([1] Xhosa: ; 18 July 1918 – 5 December 2013) was a South African anti-apartheid revolutionary, political leader, and philanthropist who served as President of South Africa from 1994 to 1999. He was the country's first black head of state and the first elected in a fully representative democratic election. His government focused on dismantling the legacy of apartheid by tackling institutionalised racism and fostering racial reconciliation. Ideologically an African nationalist and socialist, he served as the president of the African National Congress (ANC) party from 1991 to 1997. A Xhosa, Mandela was born to the Thembu royal family in Mvezo, Union of South Africa. He studied law at the University of Fort Hare and the University of Witwatersrand before working as a lawyer in Johannesburg. There he became involved in anti-colonial and African nationalist politics, joining the ANC in 1943 and co-founding its Youth League in 1944. After the National Party's white-only government establi

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Alberto Fujimori

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Alberto Fujimori

Alberto Fujimori Fujimori[2] (Spanish pronunciation: ; Japanese: ; born 26 July 1938)[3][4] is a Peruvian former politician who served as the President of Peru from 28 July 1990 to 22 November 2000. His government is credited with the creation of Fujimorism, defeating the Shining Path insurgency and restoring Peru's macroeconomic stability.[5][6][7][8] Fujimori ended his presidency by fleeing Peru for Japan amid a major scandal involving corruption and human rights violations.[9][10] Even amid his prosecution in 2008 for crimes against humanity relating to his presidency, two-thirds of Peruvians polled voiced approval for his leadership in that period.[11] A Peruvian of Japanese descent,[12] Fujimori took refuge in Japan when faced with charges of corruption in 2000. On arriving in Japan, he attempted to resign his presidency via fax, but his resignation was rejected by the Congress of the Republic, which preferred to remove him from office by the process of impeachment. Wanted in Peru on charges of corrupti

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Gnassingbé Eyadéma

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Gnassingbé Eyadéma

Gnassingbé Eyadéma (French pronunciation: ​; born Étienne Eyadéma, 26 December 1935 – 5 February 2005) was the President of Togo from 1967 until his death in 2005. He participated in two successful military coups, in January 1963 and January 1967, and became President on 14 April 1967. As President, he created a political party, the Rally of the Togolese People (RPT), and headed an anti-communist[1] single-party regime until the early 1990s, when reforms leading to multiparty elections began. Although his rule was seriously challenged by the events of the early 1990s, he ultimately consolidated power again and won multiparty presidential elections in 1993, 1998 and 2003; the opposition boycotted the 1993 election and denounced the 1998 and 2003 election results as fraudulent. At the time of his death, Eyadéma was the longest-serving ruler in Africa.[2] According to a 2018 study, "Gnassingbé Eyadema's rule rested on repression, patronage, and a bizarre leadership cult."[3] Early life and military career Ét

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Leon Trotsky

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Leon Trotsky

Leon Trotsky[a] ([1] born Lev Davidovich Bronstein;[b] 7 November [O.S. 26 October] 1879 – 21 August 1940) was a Soviet revolutionary, Marxist theorist and politician whose particular strain of Marxist thought is known as Trotskyism. Trotsky took part in the 1917 October Revolution, immediately becoming a leader within the Communist Party. He was one of the seven members of the first Politburo.[2] He was a prominent figure in the early People's Commissar for Foreign Affairs and later as the founder and commander of the Red Army.[3] After the rise of Joseph Stalin, Trotsky was removed from his positions and eventually expelled from the Soviet Union in February 1929. He spent the rest of his life in exile, and was assassinated in 1940 in Mexico City by Ramón Mercader, a Soviet agent.[4] Trotsky's ideas developed the basis of Trotskyism, a prime school of Marxist thought that opposes the theories of Stalinism.[5][6] He was written out of the history books under Stalin and was one of the few Soviet political pe

Jewish Soviet politicians

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Karim Achoui

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Karim Achoui

Karim Achoui (born 1967) is a French-Algerian lawyer. He is notable for his alleged connections with the French milieu, the French mafia, and for his involvement in several significant cases, which have earned him the nickname "avocat des voyous," or advocate of thugs in the media.[1] He is the founder of the League of Judicial Defense of Muslims (Ligue de défense judiciaire des musulmans in French). Boulogne-Billancourt Early life and education Karim Achoui was born in Boulogne-Billancourt into a modest home. His mother was a wet nurse, or nanny, and his father was an employee at Renault, an automobile company. Both his parents were from Kabylie, Algeria. He studied medicine and law simultaneously before choosing to pursue law and prepare for a career as an attorney. He began practicing as a criminal defense lawyer in 1993 in Paris.[2] Career Karim Achoui began his legal career the Court of Paris in January 1993. He began working with his former lecturer, Jean-Marc Florand, who was known for serving on

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Edward VIII

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Edward VIII

Edward VIII, later Prince Edward, Duke of Windsor (Edward Albert Christian George Andrew Patrick David; 23 June 1894 – 28 May 1972), was King of the United Kingdom and the Dominions of the British Empire, and Emperor of India, from 20 January 1936 until his abdication on 11 December of that year. Edward was born during the reign of his great-grandmother Queen Victoria as the eldest child of the Duke and Duchess of York, later King George V and Queen Mary. He was created Prince of Wales on his sixteenth birthday, nine weeks after his father succeeded as king. As a young man, Edward served in the British Army during the First World War and undertook several overseas tours on behalf of his father. While Prince of Wales, he engaged in a series of affairs that worried his father and the British Prime Minister, Stanley Baldwin. Edward became king on his father's death. As king, he showed impatience with court protocol, and caused concern among politicians by his apparent disregard for established constitutional c

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António de Oliveira Salazar

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António de Oliveira Salazar

António de Oliveira Salazar GCTE GCSE GColIH GCIC (Portuguese: ; 28 April 1889 – 27 July 1970) was a Portuguese statesman who served as Prime Minister of Portugal from 1932 to 1968. He was responsible for the Estado Novo ("New State"), the corporatist authoritarian government that ruled Portugal until 1974. A trained economist, Salazar entered public life with the support of President Óscar Carmona after the Portuguese coup d'état of 28 May 1926, initially as finance minister and later as prime minister. Opposed to democracy, communism, socialism, anarchism and liberalism, Salazar's rule was conservative and nationalist in nature. Salazar distanced himself from fascism and Nazism, which he criticized as a "pagan Caesarism" that recognised neither legal nor moral limits.[1] Salazar promoted Catholicism, but argued that the role of the Church was social, not political, and negotiated the Concordat of 1940. One of the mottos of the Salazar regime was "Deus, Pátria e Família" (meaning "God, Fatherland and Family

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Chief Keef

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Chief Keef

Keith Farrelle Cozart (born August 15, 1995),[3] better known by his stage name Chief Keef, is an American rapper, singer, songwriter, and record producer. Keef's music first became popular during his teen years in the early 2010s among high school students from Chicago's South Side.[4] In 2012, his popular street single "I Don't Like" was remixed by rapper Kanye West and reached the Billboard Rap Top 20 raising Keef's profile further.[4] A bidding war between major labels resulted in Keef signing with Interscope. His debut album Finally Rich was released in December 2012, and featured the singles "I Don't Like" and "Love Sosa", which would popularize the Chicago rap subgenre drill.[5] Chief Keef has faced ongoing legal issues during his career, including weapons possession charges, house arrest sentences, and a performance ban imposed by Chicago authorities.[6] Though he was dropped from Interscope in late 2014 and later signed to 1017 Records, he continued self-releasing projects through his own Glo Gang l

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