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Rodent-carried diseases


Limestone Canyon virus

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Limestone Canyon virus

Limestone Canyon virus (LSC) is a single-stranded, negative-sense RNA zoonotic Orthohantavirus that is genetically similar to Sin Nombre orthohantavirus which causes Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) in humans. HPS causing hantaviruses are found only in the United States and South America.[1] LSC has not been shown to cause HPS in humans.[2] Reservoir The virus was isolated from the brush mouse (Peromyscus boylii).[3] Phylogenetic analysis of M genome segment showed LSC to be very distinct from other Peromyscus-borne viruses. Other Peromyscus-associated hantaviruses include Sin Nombre orthohantavirus (SNV), New York orthohantavirus (NYV), and Monongahela virus (MGLV).[1] See also 1993 Four Corners hantavirus outbreak References Sanchez AJ, Abbott KD, Nichol ST. Genetic identification and characterization of limestone canyon virus, a unique Peromyscus-borne hantavirus. Virology. 2001 Aug 1;286(2):345–53. "DHS Guidelines for rodent hantavirus surveillance" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF)

Infraspecific virus taxa

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Hantaviridae

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Hantaviruses

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Muleshoe virus

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Muleshoe virus

Muleshoe virus (MULEV) is a novel, single-stranded, enveloped, negative-sense RNA orthohantavirus.[1] Natural reservoir Muleshoe virus was isolated from two cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus) in Deaf Smith County, Texas in 1995 following a fatal case of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in a child. The field investigation yielded the novel Muleshoe virus. The source of HPS in the child was determined to be Sin Nombre virus. Virology The complete genomic sequence was determined for MULEV and found to be phylogenetically closest in structure to Bayou virus. See also Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome Hantavirus hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome 1993 Four Corners hantavirus outbreak References Rawlings JA, Torrez-Martinez N, Neill SU, Moore GM, Hicks BN, Pichuantes S, Nguyen A, Bharadwaj M, Hjelle B.. Cocirculation of multiple hantaviruses in Texas, with characterization of the small (S) genome of a previously undescribed virus of cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus). Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1996 Dec;55(6):672–9.

Hantaviridae

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Hantaviruses

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Rodent-carried diseases

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Maripa virus

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Maripa virus

Maripa virus is a single-stranded, enveloped, negative-sense RNA hantavirus species in the Bunyavirales order. It is a new variant strain of Rio Mamore virus. It was first isolated from a patient with hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in French Guiana.[1] See also Rio Mamore virus 1993 Four Corners hantavirus outbreak Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome References Matheus S, Lavergne A, de Thoisy B, Dussart P, Lacoste V (2012). "Complete genome sequence of a novel hantavirus variant of Rio Mamoré virus, Maripa virus, from French Guiana". J. Virol. 86 (9): 5399. doi:10.1128/JVI.00337-12. PMC 3347398. PMID 22492924. External links CDC's Hantavirus Technical Information Index page Viralzone: Hantavirus Virus Pathogen Database and Analysis Resource (ViPR): Bunyaviridae Occurrences and deaths in North and South America

Hantaviridae

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Hantaviruses

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Rodent-carried diseases

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Muju virus

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Muju virus

Muju virus (MUV) is a zoonotic negative-sense single-stranded RNA virus of the genus Orthohantavirus. It is a member virus of Puumala orthohantavirus.[1] It is one of four rodent-borne Hantaviruses found in the Republic of Korea. It is the etiologic agent for Hantavirus hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS). The other species responsible for HFRS in Korea are Seoul orthohantavirus, Hantaan orthohantavirus, and Soochong virus.[2][3] Transmission This species of hantavirus has not been shown to transfer from person to person. Transmission by aerosolized rodent excreta still remains the only known way the virus is transmitted to humans. In general, droplet and/or fomite transfer has not been shown in the hantaviruses in either the hemorrhagic or pulmonary forms.[4][5] See also Conjunctival suffusion List of cutaneous conditions Sweating sickness, which may have been caused by a hantavirus 1993 Four Corners hantavirus outbreak References Briese, Thomas; et al. (18 July 2016). "In the genus H

Infraspecific virus taxa

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Hantaviridae

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Hantaviruses

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Monongahela virus

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Monongahela virus

Monongahela virus (MGLV) is a single-stranded, negative-sense Orthohantavirus virus of zoonotic origin that causes Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome.[1] Discovery of virus Monongahela virus was first detected in Peromyscus maniculatus nubiterrae (Cloudland deer mice) captured in the Monongahela National Forest in West Virginia in 1985.[2] Transmission This member virus of Sin Nombre orthohantavirus has not been shown to transfer from person to person. Transmission by aerosolized rodent excreta still remains the only known way the virus is transmitted to humans. In general, droplet and/or fomite transfer has not been shown in the hantaviruses in either the hemorrhagic or pulmonary forms.[3][4] In two cases in Pennsylvania, the patients were living in rural areas and had recent exposure to rodent excreta prior to the onset of symptoms. Both patients developed rapid onset of respiratory distress and pulmonary edema, believed to be the result of cytokine storm, and both expired within 5 days of onset of symptoms

Infraspecific virus taxa

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Hantaviridae

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Hantaviruses

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Nova virus

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Nova virus

Nova virus is a single-stranded, negative-sense, enveloped RNA orthohantavirus. It is phylogenetically related to other European and Asian hantaviruses that cause hantavirus hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome. No known human cases of infection have been reported.[1] Natural reservoir Nova virus was first isolated in European moles (Talpa europaea) found in Hungary and France. Previously it was believed that rodents were the principal reservoir hosts, but field trapping has discovered hantavirus species in insectivore bats, shrews, and moles (Soricidae and Talpidae).[2] See also European mole Hantavirus hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome References Gu SH, Dormion J, Hugot JP, Yanagihara R (2014). "High prevalence of Nova hantavirus infection in the European mole (Talpa europaea) in France". Epidemiology and Infection. 142 (6): 1167–71. doi:10.1017/S0950268813002197. PMC 4082828. PMID 24044372. Kang HJ, Bennett SN, Sumibcay L, Arai S, Hope AG, Mocz G, Song JW, Cook JA, Yanagihara R (2009).

Hantaviridae

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Hantaviruses

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Rodent-carried diseases

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Mycoplasma

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Mycoplasma

Mycoplasma (plural mycoplsasmas or mycoplasmata) is a genus of bacteria that lack a cell wall around their cell membranes.[1] This characteristic makes them naturally resistant to antibiotics that target cell wall synthesis (like the beta-lactam antibiotics). They can be parasitic or saprotrophic. Several species are pathogenic in humans, including M. pneumoniae, which is an important cause of "walking" pneumonia and other respiratory disorders, and M. genitalium, which is believed to be involved in pelvic inflammatory diseases. Mycoplasma species are the smallest bacterial cells yet discovered,[2] can survive without oxygen, and come in various shapes. For example, M. genitalium is flask-shaped (about 300 x 600 nm), while M. pneumoniae is more elongated (about 100 x 1000 nm). Hundreds of mycoplasma species infect animals.[3] Etymology The term mycoplasma, from the Greek μύκης, mykes (fungus) and πλάσμα, plasma (formed), was first used by Albert Bernhard Frank in 1889 to describe an altered state of plant

Bacteria genera

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Infectious causes of cancer

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Pelvic inflamatory disease

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Oriental rat flea

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Oriental rat flea

The Oriental rat flea (Xenopsylla cheopis), also known as the tropical rat flea, is a parasite of rodents, primarily of the genus Rattus, and is a primary vector for bubonic plague and murine typhus. This occurs when the flea has fed on an infected rodent and bites a human, although this flea can live on any warm blooded mammal. Body structure The oriental rat flea has no genal or pronotal combs. This characteristic can be used to differentiate the oriental rat flea from the cat flea, dog flea, and other fleas. The flea's body is about one tenth of an inch long (about 2.5 mm). Its body is constructed to make it easier to jump long distances. The flea's body consists of three regions: head, thorax, and abdomen. The head and the thorax have rows of bristles (called combs), and the abdomen consists of eight visible segments. A flea's mouth has two functions: one for squirting saliva or partly digested blood into the bite, and one for sucking up blood from the host. This process mechanically transmits pathoge

Pulicidae

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Parasites of rodents

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Insect vectors of animal pathogens

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Plague (disease)

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Plague (disease)

Plague is an infectious disease caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis.[2] Symptoms include fever, weakness and headache.[1] Usually this begins one to seven days after exposure.[2] In the bubonic form there is also swelling of lymph nodes, while in the septicemic form tissues may turn black and die, and in the pneumonic form shortness of breath, cough and chest pain may occur.[1] Bubonic and septicemic plague are generally spread by flea bites or handling an infected animal.[1] The pneumonitic form is generally spread between people through the air via infectious droplets.[1] Diagnosis is typically by finding the bacterium in fluid from a lymph node, blood or sputum.[2] Those at high risk may be vaccinated.[2] Those exposed to a case of pneumonic plague may be treated with preventive medication.[2] If infected, treatment is with antibiotics and supportive care.[2] Typically antibiotics include a combination of gentamicin and a fluoroquinolone.[3] The risk of death with treatment is about 10% while without

CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list

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Cat diseases

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Deaths from plague (disease)

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Prospect Hill virus

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Prospect Hill virus

Prospect Hill virus is a single-stranded, negative-sense Hantaan-like zoonotic RNA virus isolated from meadow voles and microtine and other cricetid rodents in the United States.[1] It has a widespread distribution in Pennsylvania, Maryland, West Virginia, Minnesota and California. The overall risk of infection in humans is low. It was first isolated from a meadow vole found in Prospect Hill, Maryland for which it is named.[2] Transmission Transmission to humans is believed to occur through aersolized inhalation of mouse excreta and possibly through fomite contamination. See also Isla Vista virus Hantaan River virus Bloodland Lake virus References Lee, PW; Amyx, HL; Gajdusek, DC; Yanagihara, RT; Goldgaber, D; Gibbs, CJ Jr. (1982). "New hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome-related virus in rodents in the United States". Lancet. 2 (8312): 1405. doi:10.1016/s0140-6736(82)91308-3. Yanagihara R, Daum CA, Lee PW, Baek LJ, Amyx HL, Gajdusek DC, Gibbs CJ Jr.Serological survey of Prospect Hill virus i

Hantaviridae

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Hantaviruses

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Rodent-carried diseases

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Puumala virus

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Puumala virus

Puumala virus (PUUV) is a species of orthohantavirus. Humans infected with the virus may develop a haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) known as nephropathia epidemica. Puumala virus HFRS is lethal in less than 0.5% of the cases.[1] Puumala virus is named after a municipality in Finland. The virus is found predominantly in Scandinavia and Finland, although it has also been reported elsewhere in Northern Europe, Poland and Russia. Because the bank vole (Myodes glareolus) acts as a reservoir for the virus, nephropathia epidemica cases track with the vole population in a three- to four-year cycle. Humans are infected through inhalation of dust from vole droppings.[2] It has been theorized that Puumala virus, unlike other members of the genus Hantavirus, may also have lethal effects on its rodent host.[3] In August 2014 an Israeli researcher studying the behavior of the bank vole in Finland died after contracting the Puumala virus, which caused a complete breakdown of her immune system.[4] Puumala vi

Hantaviridae

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Hantaviruses

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Rodent-carried diseases

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Rabies

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Rabies

Rabies is a viral disease that causes inflammation of the brain in humans and other mammals.[1] Early symptoms can include fever and tingling at the site of exposure.[1] These symptoms are followed by one or more of the following symptoms: violent movements, uncontrolled excitement, fear of water, an inability to move parts of the body, confusion, and loss of consciousness.[1] Once symptoms appear, the result is nearly always death.[1] The time period between contracting the disease and the start of symptoms is usually one to three months, but can vary from less than one week to more than one year.[1] The time depends on the distance the virus must travel along peripheral nerves to reach the central nervous system.[5] Rabies is caused by lyssaviruses, including the rabies virus and Australian bat lyssavirus.[3] It is spread when an infected animal bites or scratches a human or other animal.[1] Saliva from an infected animal can also transmit rabies if the saliva comes into contact with the eyes, mouth, or no

Rodent-carried diseases

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1977 horror films

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Neglected diseases

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Q fever

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Q fever

Q fever is a disease caused by infection with Coxiella burnetii,[1][2] a bacterium that affects humans and other animals. This organism is uncommon, but may be found in cattle, sheep, goats, and other domestic mammals, including cats and dogs. The infection results from inhalation of a spore-like small-cell variant, and from contact with the milk, urine, feces, vaginal mucus, or semen of infected animals. Rarely, the disease is tick-borne.[3] The incubation period is 9–40 days. Humans are vulnerable to Q fever, and infection can result from even a few organisms.[3] The bacterium is an obligate intracellular pathogenic parasite. Signs and symptoms Incubation period is usually two to three weeks.[4] The most common manifestation is flu-like symptoms with abrupt onset of fever, malaise, profuse perspiration, severe headache, muscle pain, joint pain, loss of appetite, upper respiratory problems, dry cough, pleuritic pain, chills, confusion, and gastrointestinal symptoms, such as nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea.

Atypical pneumonias

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Tick-borne diseases

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Sheep and goat diseases

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Rio Segundo virus

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Rio Segundo virus

Rio Segundo virus is a single-stranded, negative-sense RNA orthohantavirus isolated in the Costa Rican harvest mouse (R. Mexicanus). It is phylogenetically related to Sin Nombre virus and causes hantavirus pulmonary syndrome. No cases in humans have yet been reported but it is believed this is due to misdiagnosis and confusion with other rapidly progressive, life-threatening respiratory illnesses such as plague, influenza and pneumococcal pneumonia. In addition, human contact with infected mice in Mexico may be less frequent than human contact in the western United States.[1][2] See also Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome Hantavirus hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome 1993 Four Corners hantavirus outbreak References Milazzo ML, Cajimat MN, Romo HE, Estrada-Franco JG, Iñiguez-Dávalos LI, Bradley RD, Fulhorst CF (2012). "Geographic distribution of hantaviruses associated with neotomine and sigmodontine rodents, Mexico". Emerging Infect. Dis. 18 (4): 571–6. doi:10.3201/eid1804.111028. PMC 3309664. PMID 2

Hantaviridae

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Hantaviruses

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Rodent-carried diseases

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Rat-bite fever

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Rat-bite fever

Rat-bite fever is an acute, febrile human illness caused by bacteria transmitted by rodents, in most cases, which is passed from rodent to human by the rodent's urine or mucous secretions. Alternative names for rat-bite fever include streptobacillary fever, streptobacillosis, spirillary fever, bogger, and epidemic arthritic erythema. It is a rare disease spread by infected rodents and can be caused by two specific types of bacteria. Most cases occur in Japan, but specific strains of the disease are present in the United States, Europe, Australia, and Africa. Some cases are diagnosed after patients were exposed to the urine or bodily secretions of an infected animal. These secretions can come from the mouth, nose, or eyes of the rodent. The majority of cases are due to the animal's bite. It can also be transmitted through food or water contaminated with rat feces or urine. Other animals can be infected with this disease, including weasels, gerbils, and squirrels. Household pets such as dogs or cats exposed to

Infectious diseases

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Communicable disease

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Zoonotic bacterial diseases

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Salmonella

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Salmonella

Salmonella is a genus of rod-shaped (bacillus) Gram-negative bacteria of the family Enterobacteriaceae. The two species of Salmonella are Salmonella enterica and Salmonella bongori. S. enterica is the type species and is further divided into six subspecies[2] that include over 2,600 serotypes.[3] Salmonella was named after Daniel Elmer Salmon (1850–1914), an American veterinary surgeon.[4] Salmonella species are non-spore-forming, predominantly motile enterobacteria with cell diameters between about 0.7 and 1.5 μm, lengths from 2 to 5 μm, and peritrichous flagella (all around the cell body).[5] They are chemotrophs, obtaining their energy from oxidation and reduction reactions using organic sources. They are also facultative anaerobes, capable of generating ATP with oxygen ("aerobically") when it is available, or when oxygen is not available, using other electron acceptors or fermentation ("anaerobically").[5] S. enterica subspecies are found worldwide in all warm-blooded animals and in the environment. S. b

Anti-agriculture weapons

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Tropical diseases

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Neglected diseases

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Saaremaa virus

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Saaremaa virus

Saaremaa virus is a single-stranded, negative-sense, RNA virus Orthohantavirus that causes a milder form of Hantavirus hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome. It is a member virus of Dobrava-Belgrade orthohantavirus.[1] It was first isolated from a striped field mouse in Slovakia.[2] References Briese, Thomas (July 18, 2016). "In the genus Hantavirus (proposed family Hanta viridae, proposed order Bunyavirales ), c reate 24 new species, abolish 7 species, change the demarcation criteria, and change the name of the genus to Orthohantavirus; likewise, rename its constit uent species" (PDF). International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV). Retrieved 30 January 2019. Plyusnin, Alexander, Vaheri, Antti. Saaremaa Hantavirus Should Not Be Confused with Its Dangerous Relative, Dobrava Virus J. Clin. Microbiol. April 2006 vol. 44 no. 4 1608–1611 External links Sloan Science and Film / Short Films / Muerto Canyon by Jen Peel 29 minutes "Hantaviruses, with emphasis on Four Corners Hantavirus" by Bri

Hantaviridae

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Hantaviruses

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Rodent-carried diseases

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Sangassou virus

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Sangassou virus

Sangassou virus (SANGV) is single-stranded, negative-sense RNA virus species of the genus orthohantavirus in the Bunyavirales order. It was first isolated in an African wood mouse (Hylomyscus simus) in the forest in Guinea, West Africa in 2010. It is named for the village near where the mouse was trapped. It is the first indigenous Murinae-associated African hantavirus to be discovered.[1] Genome The virus genome consists of three segments of negative-stranded RNA; the large (L) segment encodes the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, the medium (M) segment encodes the envelope glycoproteins Gn and Gc (cotranslationally cleaved from a glycoprotein precursor), and the small (S) segment encodes the nucleocapsid (N) protein.[1] Renal syndrome In rodents, hantavirus produces a chronic infection with no adverse sequelae. In humans, hantavirus produces two major clinical syndromes: hemorrhagic fever or pulmonary syndrome. European, Asian, and African rodent-borne hantaviruses cause hemorrhagic fever. The pulmona

Hantaviridae

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Hantaviruses

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Biological weapons

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Sarcocystis

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Sarcocystis

Sarcocystis is a genus of parasites, the majority of species infecting mammals, and some infecting reptiles and birds. The lifecycle of a typical member of this genus involves two host species, a definitive host and an intermediate host. Often, the definitive host is a predator and the intermediate host is its prey. The parasite reproduces sexually in the gut of the definitive host, is passed with the feces, and ingested by the intermediate host. There, it eventually enters muscle tissue. When the intermediate host is eaten by the definitive host, the cycle is completed. The definitive host usually does not show any symptoms of infection, but the intermediate host does. About 130 recognized species are in this genus. Revision of the taxonomy of the genus is ongoing, and all the currently recognised species may be a much smaller number of species that can infect multiple hosts. The name Sarcocystis is dervived from Greek: sarx = flesh and kystis = bladder. History The organism was first recognised in a mo

Apicomplexa genera

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Conoidasida

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Parasites of mammals

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Sarcocystis nesbitti

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Sarcocystis nesbitti

Sarcocystis nesbitti is a species of Apicomplexa. Human infection Sarcocysts isolated from persons infected with Sarcocystis nesbitti, Pangkor Island, Malaysia, 2012. A- Intact human sarcocyst (length 190 µm) with thin cyst wall (arrow) from homogenized temporalis tissue inoculated into a U937 monocytic cell culture (original magnification ×200, scale bar = 20 µm). B- Intramuscular sarcocyst enclosed by a thin smooth cyst wall (arrow) without any protrusions. Maximum cyst wall thickness is about 0.5 µm (hematoxylin and eosin stained, original magnification ×40, scale bar = 10 µm). An outbreak investigation was conducted on 93 symptomatic persons from Malaysia following a college retreat on January 17–19, 2012, on Pangkor Island. Predominant manifestations were fever (relapsing in about 50% of patients), myalgia, headache, and cough. Although only two patients were confirmed to be acutely infected with S. nesbitti, the remaining students and teachers in the group likely had the same infection, because nea

Conoidasida

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Parasites of mammals

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Parasitic diseases

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Serang virus

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Serang virus

Serang virus (SERV) is a single-stranded, negative-sense, enveloped, novel RNA orthohantavirus.[1] Natural reservoir SERV was first isolated from the Asian house rat (R.Tanezumi) in Serang, Indonesia in 2008. Virology Phylogenetic analysis based on partial L, M and S segment nucleotide sequences show SERV is novel and distinct among the hantaviruses. It is most closely related to Thailand virus (THAIV) which is carried by the great bandicoot rat (Bandicota indica). Nucleotide sequence comparison suggests that SERV is the result of cross-species transmission from bandicoots to Asian rats. See also Hantavirus hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome Seoul virus References Plyusnina A, Ibrahim IN, Plyusnin A (2009). "A newly recognized hantavirus in the Asian house rat (Rattus tanezumi) in Indonesia". J. Gen. Virol. 90 (Pt 1): 205–9. doi:10.1099/vir.0.006155-0. PMID 19088290. External links Serang virus strain details Guo WP, Lin XD, Wang W, Tian JH, Cong ML, Zhang HL, Wang MR, Zhou RH, Wang J

Hantaviridae

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Serang

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Hantaviruses

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Streptobacillus

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Streptobacillus

Streptobacillus is a genus of fastidious microaerophilic gram-negative bacteria, which grow in culture as rods in chains.[2] Species associated with infection - S. moniliformis Reported susceptibilities and therapies - penicillin, erythromycin Diseases Associated infections: the Haverhill fever form of rat bite fever. (Notes Spirillum minus is also an agent of rat bite fever, in the form known as sodoku.) Haverhill fever, which is characterized by fever, rash, chills, headache, vomiting, muscle pain, arthritis, and bacteremia, and by weight loss and diarrhea in children. Commentary Rat bite fever is caused by either Streptobacillus moniliformis or Spirillum minor. The incidence of rat-bite fever is highest in urban areas with poor sanitation where the rat population is high, however in recent times cases have also been attributed to occupational contact with rodents such as pet shop employees or laboratory workers or through pet ownership.[3] While the disease is usually caused by a bite, it can also

Fusobacteria

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Rodent-carried diseases

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Bacteria genera

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Soochong virus

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Soochong virus

Soochong virus (SOOV) is a zoonotic negative sense single-stranded RNA virus. It may be a member of the genus Orthohantavirus, but it has not be definitively classified as a species and may only be a strain.[1] It is one of four rodent-borne Hantaviruses found in the Republic of Korea. It is the etiologic agent for Hantavirus hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS). The other species responsible for HFRS in Korea are Seoul virus, Haantan virus, and Muju virus.[2] Soochong was isolated from four Korean field mice (Apodemus peninsulae) captured in August 1997 at Mt. Gyebang in Hongcheon-gun, Mt. Gachil, Inje-gun, Gangwon Province, and in September 1998 at Mt. Deogyu, Muju-gun, Jeollabuk Province. Transmission This species of Hantavirus has not been shown to transfer from person-to-person. Transmission by aerosolized rodent excreta still remains the only known way the virus is transmitted to humans. In general, drop-let and/or fomite transfer has not been shown in the hantaviruses in either the hemorrhag

Hantaviridae

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Hantaviruses

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Biological weapons

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Thottapalayam virus

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Thottapalayam virus

Thottapalayam virus (TMPV) is single-stranded, enveloped, negative-sense RNA virus species of the genus orthohantavirus in the Bunyavirales order. It is the first hantavirus to be isolated from a shrew. It was discovered in India in 1964.[1][2] Natural reservoir TPMV was first isolated from an Asian house shrew (Suncus murinus) in India in 1964. It is the only known hantavirus to be hosted by a shrew instead of a rodent. It was subsequently isolated in Asian house shrews in Wenzhou of Zhejiang province, China.[3] Virology Phylogenetic analysis has shown that Thottapalayam virus, and its closely related strains, is unique and forms a distinct lineage, unrelated to other hantaviruses. The closest hantavirus to TMPV is Imjin virus which demonstrates corresponding nucleotide sequences to TPMV as does Tanganya virus.[4] See also RNA virus Puumala virus References Carey DE, Reuben R, Panicker KN, Shope RE, Myers RM. Thottapalayam virus: a presumptive arbovirus isolated from a shrew in India. Indian J

Hantaviridae

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Hantaviruses

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Rodent-carried diseases

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Tula virus

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Tula virus

Tula virus (TULV) is a single-stranded, negative-sense RNA virus species of orthohantavirus first isolated from a European common vole (Microtus arvalis) found in Central Russia. It causes Hantavirus hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome.[1][2] The Microtus species are also found in North America, Europe, Scandinavia, Slovenia, Asia, and Western Russia. Human cases of Tula virus have also been reported in Switzerland and Germany.[3] See also Sweating sickness References Plyusnin A, Vapalahti O, Lankinen H, Lehväslaiho H, Apekina N, Myasnikov Y, Kallio-Kokko H, Henttonen H, Lundkvist A, Brummer-Korvenkontio M (1994). "Tula virus: a newly detected hantavirus carried by European common voles". J. Virol. 68 (12): 7833–9. PMC 237245. PMID 7966573. Korva M, Duh D, Puterle A, Trilar T, Zupanc TA (2009). "First molecular evidence of Tula hantavirus in Microtus voles in Slovenia". Virus Res. 144 (1–2): 318–22. doi:10.1016/j.virusres.2009.04.021. PMID 19410611. Klempa B, Meisel H, Räth S, Bartel J, Ulrich

Hantaviridae

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Hantaviruses

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Trichinosis

topic

Trichinosis

Trichinosis, also known as trichinellosis, is a parasitic disease caused by roundworms of the Trichinella type.[1] During the initial infection, invasion of the intestines can result in diarrhea, abdominal pain, and vomiting.[1] Migration of larvae to muscle, which occurs about a week after being infected, can cause swelling of the face, inflammation of the whites of the eyes, fever, muscle pains, and a rash.[1] Minor infection may be without symptoms.[1] Complications may include inflammation of heart muscle, central nervous system involvement, and inflammation of the lungs.[1] Trichinosis is mainly spread when undercooked meat containing Trichinella cysts is eaten.[1] Most often this is pork, but infection can also occur from bear and dog meat.[7] Several species of Trichinella can cause disease, with T. spiralis being the most common.[1] After being eaten, the larvae are released from their cysts in the stomach.[1] They then invade the wall of the small intestine, where they develop into adult worms.[1] A

Animal diseases

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RTTID

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Parasitic nematodes of mammals

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Venezuelan hemorrhagic fever

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Venezuelan hemorrhagic fever

Venezuelan hemorrhagic fever (VHF) is a zoonotic human illness first identified in 1989. The disease is most prevalent in several rural areas of central Venezuela and is caused by Guanarito mammarenavirus (GTOV) which belongs to the Arenaviridae family. The short-tailed cane mouse (Zygodontomys brevicauda) is the main host for GTOV [2] which is spread mostly by inhalation of aerosolized droplets of saliva, respiratory secretions, urine, or blood from infected rodents.[3] Person-to-person spread is possible, but uncommon. Presentation VHF has many similarities to Lassa fever and to the arenavirus hemorrhagic fevers that occur in Argentina and Bolivia.[4] It causes fever and malaise followed by hemorrhagic manifestations and convulsions.[5] Some presentations of the virus are also characterized by vascular damage, bleeding diathesis, fever, and multiple organ involvement. Clinical diagnosis of VHF has proven to be difficult based on the nonspecific symptoms.[6] The disease is fatal in 30% of cases and is ende

Arenaviridae

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Animal viral diseases

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Rodent-carried diseases

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Urban plague

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Urban plague

Urban plague is an infectious disease among rodent species that live in close association with humans in urban areas. It is caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis which is the same bacterium that causes bubonic and pneumonic plague in humans. Plague was first introduced into the United States in 1900 by rat–infested steamships that had sailed from affected areas, mostly from Asia. Urban plague spread from urban rats to rural rodent species, especially among prairie dogs in the western United States.[1][2] Vector reservoir Common vectors for urban plague are house mice, black rats, and Norway rats.[3] Transmission Urban plague can be spread from animals to humans via flea bites and handling of infected fluids and tissues. Human to human infection occurs from droplets that contain plague bacteria which are produced when an infected person coughs.[4] See also Sylvatic plague Epizootic References "A Plague Epizootic In The Black-Tailed Prairie Dog (Cynomys Ludovicianus)". Jwildlifedis.org. 2006-01-

Rodent-carried diseases

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Plague (disease)

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Black Death

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Sarcocystis host–parasite relations

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Sarcocystis host–parasite relations

Sarcocystis is a genus of parasitic Apicomplexan alveolates. Species in this genus infect reptiles, birds and mammals. The name is derived from Greek: sarkos = flesh and kystis = bladder. There are about 130 recognised species in this genus. Revision of the taxonomy of this genus is ongoing and it is possible that all the currently recognised species may in fact be a single species or much smaller number of species that can infect multiple hosts. The parasite's life cycle typically involves a predator and a prey animal. A single species may infect multiple prey or predator animals. In at least 56 species definitive and intermediate hosts are known. Many species are named after their recognised hosts Further material on this genus can be found on the Sarcocystis page. Mammalian species infected Superorder Euarchontoglires Order Lagomorpha rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus) Order Primates human (Homo sapiens) slow loris (Nycticebus coucang) baboon (Papio cyno

Conoidasida

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Apicomplexa

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Parasitic protists

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Robovirus

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Robovirus

A robovirus is a zoonotic virus that is transmitted by a rodent vector (i.e., rodent borne).[1][2] Roboviruses mainly belong to the virus families Arenaviridae and Hantaviridae.[3][4] Like arbovirus (arthropod borne) and tibovirus (tick borne) the name refers to its method of transmission, known as its vector. This is distinguished from a clade, which groups around a common ancestor. Some scientists now refer to arbovirus and robovirus together with the term ArboRobo-virus.[5] Methods of transmission Rodent borne disease can be transmitted through different forms of contact such as rodent bites, scratches, urine, saliva, etc.[6] Potential sites of contact with rodents include habitats such as barns, outbuildings, sheds, and dense urban areas. Transmission of disease through rodents can be spread to humans through direct handling and contact, or indirectly through rodents carrying the disease spread to ticks, mites, fleas (arboborne).[7] Viral diseases transmitted by rodents One example of a robovirus is

Rodent-carried diseases

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Viruses

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Angiostrongyliasis

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Angiostrongyliasis

Angiostrongyliasis is an infection by a roundworm of the Angiostrongylus type. Symptoms may vary from none, to mild, to meningitis.[1] Infection with Angiostrongylus cantonensis (rat lungworm) can occur after voluntarily or inadvertently consuming raw Giant African land snails, great grey slugs, or other mollusks and even unwashed fruits and vegetables. In humans, Angiostrongylus is the most common cause of eosinophilic meningitis or meningoencephalitis.[2] Frequently the infection will resolve without treatment or serious consequences, but in cases with a heavy load of parasites the infection can be so severe it can cause permanent damage to the central nervous system or death.[3] Symptoms Infection first presents with severe abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and weakness, which gradually lessens and progresses to fever, and then to central nervous system (CNS) symptoms and severe headache and stiffness of the neck. CNS infection CNS symptoms begin with mild cognitive impairment and slowed reactions,

Rodent-carried diseases

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Zoonoses

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Helminthiases

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Orthohantavirus

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Orthohantavirus

Orthohantavirus is a genus of single-stranded, enveloped, negative-sense RNA viruses in the family Hantaviridae of the order Bunyavirales.[3] Members of this genus may be called orthohantaviruses or simply hantaviruses. They normally cause infection in rodents, but do not cause disease in them.[3] Humans may become infected with hantaviruses through contact with rodent urine, saliva, or feces. Some strains cause potentially fatal diseases in humans, such as hantavirus hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS), or hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS), also known as hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS),[4] while others have not been associated with known human disease.[5] HPS (HCPS) is a "rare respiratory illness associated with the inhalation of aerosolized rodent excreta (urine and feces) contaminated by hantavirus particles."[4] Human infections of hantaviruses have almost entirely been linked to human contact with rodent excrement; however, in 2005 and 2019, human-to-human transmission of the Andes

Hantaviridae

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Hantaviruses

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Cryptosporidium parvum

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Cryptosporidium parvum

Cryptosporidium parvum is one of several species that cause cryptosporidiosis, a parasitic disease of the mammalian intestinal tract.[1] Primary symptoms of C. parvum infection are acute, watery, and nonbloody diarrhea. C. parvum infection is of particular concern in immunocompromised patients, where diarrhea can reach 10–15 l per day. Other symptoms may include anorexia, nausea/vomiting, and abdominal pain. Extra-intestinal sites include the lung, liver, and gall bladder, where it causes respiratory cryptosporidosis, hepatitis, and cholecystitis, respectively. Infection is caused by ingestion of sporulated oocysts transmitted by the faecal-oral route. In healthy human hosts, the median infective dose is 132 oocysts.[2] The general C. parvum lifecycle is shared by other members of the genus. Invasion of the apical tip of ileal enterocytes by sporozoites and merozoites causes pathology seen in the disease. Infection is generally self-limiting in immunocompetent people. In immunocompromised patients, such as

Conoidasida

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Rodent-carried diseases

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International Organization for Mycoplasmology

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International Organization for Mycoplasmology

The International Organisation for Mycoplasmology (IOM) is a non-profit making organisation founded in 1976. It promotes the study of mycoplasmas (mollicutes), bacteria without a cell wall, and the diseases associated with them.[1] Areas of research The IOM produces an annual report covering all areas of mycoplasmology. Specific areas of research currently undertaken include mycoplasma arthritis, avian mycoplasmas, cell culture mycoplasmas, molecular genetics, phytoplasmas and ureaplasmas. The IOM also puts emphasis on pathogenesis, vaccines and mycoplasmal diseases of domestic animals and plants.[1] Membership In 2013 the institute had about 500 members. Specialists include: microbiologists, clinicians, biochemists, entomologists, plant pathologists, veterinarians and geneticists.[1] See also Emmy Klieneberger-Nobel a pioneer in the study of mycoplasma Leonard Hayflick IOM award winner References IOM Website, accessed 23 April 2014

Research institutes started in 1976

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Medical research institutes

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Mollicutes

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Lymphocytic choriomeningitis

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Lymphocytic choriomeningitis

Lymphocytic choriomeningitis (LCM) is a rodent-borne viral infectious disease that presents as aseptic meningitis, encephalitis or meningoencephalitis. Its causative agent is lymphocytic choriomeningitis mammarenavirus (LCMV), a member of the family Arenaviridae. The name was coined by Charles Armstrong in 1934.[2] Lymphocytic choriomeningitis (LCM) is "a viral infection of the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord and of the cerebrospinal fluid".[3] The name is based on the tendency of an individual to have abnormally high levels of lymphocytes during infection. Choriomeningitis is "cerebral meningitis in which there is marked cellular infiltration of the meninges, often with a lymphocytic infiltration of the choroid plexuses".[4] Signs and symptoms LCMV infection manifests itself in a wide range of clinical symptoms, and may even be asymptomatic for immunocompetent individuals.[5] Onset typically occurs between one or two weeks after exposure to the virus and is followed by a biphasic febrile

Zoonoses

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Meningitis

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Animal viral diseases

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Toxoplasma gondii

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Toxoplasma gondii

Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular parasitic one-celled eukaryote (specifically an apicomplexan) that causes the infectious disease toxoplasmosis.[3] Found worldwide, T. gondii is capable of infecting virtually all warm-blooded animals,[4]:1 but felids, such as domestic cats, are the only known definitive hosts in which the parasite may undergo sexual reproduction.[5][6] In humans, T. gondii is one of the most common parasites in developed countries;[7][8] serological studies estimate that 30–50% of the global population has been exposed to and may be chronically infected with T. gondii, although infection rates differ significantly from country to country.[9][10] For example, previous estimates have shown the highest prevalence of persons infected to be in France, at 84%.[11] Although mild, flu-like symptoms occasionally occur during the first few weeks following exposure, infection with T. gondii produces no readily observable symptoms in healthy human adults.[9][12][4]:77 This asymptomatic sta

Parasites of rodents

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Suicide-inducing parasitism

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Cats as pets

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Prospect Hill orthohantavirus

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Prospect Hill orthohantavirus

Prospect Hill orthohantavirus is a single-stranded, negative-sense Hantaan-like zoonotic RNA virus isolated from meadow voles and microtine and other cricetid rodents in the United States.[2] It has a widespread distribution in Pennsylvania, Maryland, West Virginia, Minnesota and California. The overall risk of infection in humans is low. It was first isolated from a meadow vole found in Prospect Hill, Maryland for which it is named.[3] Transmission Transmission to humans is believed to occur through aersolized inhalation of mouse excreta and possibly through fomite contamination. See also Isla Vista virus Hantaan River virus Bloodland Lake virus References Briese, Thomas; Alkhovsky, Sergey; Beer, Martin; Calisher, Charlie H.; Charrel, Remi; Ebihara, Hideki; Elliott, Richard M.; Jain, Rakesh; Kuhn, Jens H.; Lambert, Amy; Maes, Piet Maes; Nunes, Marcio; Plyusnin, Alexander; Schmaljohn, Connie; Tesh, Robert B.; Yeh, Shyi-Dong (15 June 2015). "Implementation of non-Latinized binomial species names i

Hantaviridae

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Rodent-carried diseases

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Viral diseases

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Dobrava-Belgrade orthohantavirus

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Dobrava-Belgrade orthohantavirus

Dobrava-Belgrade orthohantavirus (DOBV), also known as Dobrava virus, is an enveloped, single-stranded, negative-sense RNA virus species of Old World Orthohantavirus. It is one of several species of Hantavirus that is the causative agent of severe Hantavirus hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome. It was first isolated from yellow-necked mice (Apodemus flavicollis) found in Dobrava Village, Slovenia, Yugoslavia.[3] It was subsequently isolated in striped field mice in Russia and other parts of Eastern Europe. It has also been found in Germany but the reservoir host there is unknown.[4] Reservoir Dobrava virus and the variants of Dobrava-Belgrade virus have been found in the yellow-necked mouse (Apodemus flavicollis) virus genotype Dobrava, the Striped field mouse (Apodemus agrarius) virus genotype Kurkino, and Black Sea field mouse (Apodemus ponticus) virus genotype Sochi. Morbidity and mortality The fatality rate is 12%, making Dobrava virus the most life-threatening hantavirus disease in Europe. Variant

Viral diseases

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Hantaviridae

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Rodent-carried diseases

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Hantaan orthohantavirus

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Hantaan orthohantavirus

Hantaan orthohantavirus (HTNV) is an enveloped, single-stranded, negative-sense RNA virus species of Old World Orthohantavirus. It is the causative agent of Korean hemorrhagic fever in humans.[1][2] It is named for the Hantan River in South Korea,[3] and in turn lends the name to its genus Orthohantavirus and family Hantaviridae. Natural reservoir Apodemus agrarius, also known as striped field mouse, is the etiological agent of Hantaan orthohantavirus.[4] Transmission Transmission is believed to be through inhalation of aersolized rodent urine and feces. Morbidity and mortality In hantavirus induced hemorrhagic fever, incubation time is between two and four weeks in humans before symptoms of infection present. Severity of symptoms depends on the viral load. Like Dobrava-Belgrade virus, Hantaan virus has a mortality rate of 10 to 12%.[5][6] History During the Korean War (1951–1953), more than 3000 American and Korean troops fell ill with renal failure, hemorrhage, and shock. The cause remained unknown

Rodent-carried diseases

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Hemorrhagic fevers

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Hantaviridae

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Puumala orthohantavirus

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Puumala orthohantavirus

Puumala orthohantavirus (PUUV) is a species of Orthohantavirus. Humans infected with the virus may develop a haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) known as nephropathia epidemica. Puumala orthohantavirus HFRS is lethal in less than 0.5% of the cases.[1] Puumala orthohantavirus was discovered and named in 1980 named after Puumala, a municipality in Finland.[2] The virus is found predominantly in Scandinavia and Finland, although it has also been reported elsewhere in Northern Europe, Poland and Russia. Because the bank vole (Myodes glareolus) acts as a reservoir for the virus, nephropathia epidemica cases track with the vole population in a three- to four-year cycle. Humans are infected through inhalation of dust from vole droppings.[3] It has been theorized that Puumala orthohantavirus, unlike other members of the genus Orthohantavirus, may also have lethal effects on its rodent host.[4] In August 2014 an Israeli researcher studying the behavior of the bank vole in Finland died after contracting th

Rodent-carried diseases

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Rabbit diseases

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Hantaviridae

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Tula orthohantavirus

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Tula orthohantavirus

Tula orthohantavirus, formerly Tula virus, (TULV) is a single-stranded, negative-sense RNA virus species of orthohantavirus first isolated from a European common vole (Microtus arvalis) found in Central Russia. It causes Hantavirus hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome.[2][3] The Microtus species are also found in North America, Europe, Scandinavia, Slovenia, Asia, and Western Russia. Human cases of Tula orthohantavirus have also been reported in Switzerland and Germany.[4] See also Sweating sickness References Briese, Thomas (15 June 2015). "Implementation of non-Latinized binomial species names in the family Bunyaviridae" (PDF). International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV). Retrieved 4 March 2019. Plyusnin A, Vapalahti O, Lankinen H, Lehväslaiho H, Apekina N, Myasnikov Y, Kallio-Kokko H, Henttonen H, Lundkvist A, Brummer-Korvenkontio M (1994). "Tula virus: a newly detected hantavirus carried by European common voles". J. Virol. 68 (12): 7833–9. PMC 237245. PMID 7966573. Korva M, Duh D,

Rodent-carried diseases

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Thottopalayam thottimvirus

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Thottopalayam thottimvirus

Thottopalayam thottimvirus, formerly Thottapalayam virus, (TMPV) is single-stranded, enveloped, negative-sense RNA virus species of the genus Thottimvirus in the Bunyavirales order. It is the first hantavirus to be isolated from a shrew. It was discovered in India in 1964.[2][3] Natural reservoir TPMV was first isolated from an Asian house shrew (Suncus murinus) in India in 1964. It is part of a group of hantaviruses which are hosted by shrews instead of rodents.[4] These shrew-borne thottimviruses are not known to cause any known disease in humans, unlike the similar and related orthohantaviruses including Andes and Hantaan viruses, which cause lethal hemorrhagic fevers.[5] TPMV was first isolated in Asian house shrews in Wenzhou of Zhejiang province, China.[6] Virology Phylogenetic analysis has shown that Thottapalayam virus, and its closely related strains, is unique and forms a distinct lineage, unrelated to other hantaviruses. The closest hantavirus to TMPV is Imjin virus which demonstrates correspo

Rodent-carried diseases

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Andes orthohantavirus

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Andes orthohantavirus

Andes orthohantavirus (ANDV), a species of Orthohantavirus, is a major causative agent of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) in South America.[2] It is named for the Andes mountains of Chile and Argentina, where it was first discovered.[3] Originating in the reservoir of rodents, Andes orthohantavirus is easily transmitted to humans who come into contact with infected rodents and/or their fecal droppings.[2][3][4] However, infected rodents do not appear ill, so there is no readily apparent indicator to determine whether the rodent is infected or not. Additionally, Andes orthohantavirus, specifically, is the only hantavirus that can be spread by human to human contact via bodily fluids or long-term contact from one infected individual to a healthy person.[3][4] Discovery Andes orthohantavirus was first identified when outbreaks of this new infection spread throughout Chile and Argentina. In 1995, it was finally characterized in Argentina on the basis of specime

Rodent-carried diseases

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Viral diseases

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Hantaviridae

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Sangassou orthohantavirus

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Sangassou orthohantavirus

Sangassou orthohantavirus (SANGV) is single-stranded, negative-sense RNA virus species of the genus Orthohantavirus in the Bunyavirales order. It was first isolated in an African wood mouse (Hylomyscus simus) in the forest in Guinea, West Africa in 2010. It is named for the village near where the mouse was trapped. It is the first indigenous Murinae-associated African hantavirus to be discovered.[2] Genome The virus genome consists of three segments of negative-stranded RNA; the large (L) segment encodes the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, the medium (M) segment encodes the envelope glycoproteins Gn and Gc (cotranslationally cleaved from a glycoprotein precursor), and the small (S) segment encodes the nucleocapsid (N) protein.[2] Renal syndrome In rodents, hantavirus produces a chronic infection with no adverse sequelae. In humans, hantavirus produces two major clinical syndromes: hemorrhagic fever or pulmonary syndrome. European, Asian, and African rodent-borne hantaviruses cause hemorrhagic fever. T

Rodent-carried diseases

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El Moro Canyon orthohantavirus

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El Moro Canyon orthohantavirus

El Moro Canyon orthohantavirus is a single-stranded, negative sense RNA virus of the genus Orthohantavirus. It is a causative agent of Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome.[2] Natural reservoir El Moro Canyon virus was isolated from western harvest mice (Reithrodontomys megalotis), in El Moro Canyon in southeastern Colorado in 1995. References Briese, Thomas; et al. (15 June 2015). "Implementation of non-Latinized binomial species names in the family Bunyaviridae" (PDF). International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV). Retrieved 8 March 2019. Calisher CH, Root JJ, Mills JN, Rowe JE, Reeder SA, Jentes ES, Wagoner K, Beaty BJ. Epizootiology of Sin Nombre and El Moro Canyon hantaviruses, southeastern Colorado, 1995–2000. J Wildl Dis. 2005 Jan;41(1):1–11.

Hantaviridae

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Viral diseases

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Rodent-carried diseases

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La Crosse encephalitis

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La Crosse encephalitis

La Crosse encephalitis is an encephalitis caused by an arbovirus (the La Crosse virus) which has a mosquito vector (Ochlerotatus triseriatus synonym Aedes triseriatus).[1] La Crosse encephalitis virus (LACV) is one of a group of mosquito-transmitted viruses that can cause encephalitis, or inflammation of the brain. LAC encephalitis is rare; in the United States, about 80–100 LACV disease cases are reported each year, although it is believed to be under-reported due to minimal symptoms experienced by many of those affected.[2] Signs and symptoms It takes 5 to 15 days after the bite of an infected mosquito to develop symptoms of LACV disease. Symptoms include nausea, headache, vomiting in milder cases and seizures, coma, paralysis and permanent brain damage in severe cases. LAC encephalitis initially presents as a nonspecific summertime illness with fever, headache, nausea, vomiting and lethargy. Severe disease occurs most commonly in children under the age of 16 and is characterized by seizures, coma, para

Rodent-carried diseases

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Zoonoses

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Orthobunyaviruses

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Angiostrongylus costaricensis

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Angiostrongylus costaricensis

Angiostrongylus costaricensis is a species of parasitic nematode and is the causative agent of abdominal angiostrongyliasis in humans.[1] It occurs in Latin America and the Caribbean.[2][3] Hosts Rodents are the normal definitive hosts, especially the Cotton Rat. Aberrant infections have occurred in many other mammals including humans.[3] Infection of mammalian hosts occurs via ingestion of L3 larvae in mollusc tissue (e.g. undercooked or raw snails or accidentally on produce) or possibly food contaminated with slime containing such larvae. [3] Molluscs are the intermediate host and are infected through ingestion or penetration of the foot by L1 infective larvae from infected feces. Limax maximus [2] Slugs from the family Veronicellidae [3] Pathology Pathology is due to both the adults and the eggs. Adults in the ileo-caecal arterioles cause an inflammatory (eosinophilic) response in humans. In the Cotton Rat the adult worms cause local haemorrhages. The intestinal wall is also affected. In human

Rodent-carried diseases

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Zoonoses

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Parasites of rodents

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Choclo orthohantavirus

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Choclo orthohantavirus

Choclo orthohantavirus (CHOV) is a single-stranded, negative-sense RNA zoonotic New World hantavirus. It was first isolated in 1999 in western Panama. The finding marked the first time Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) was found in Central America.[1] During this outbreak, a high seroprevalence was found among the general population, suggesting that this virus has an extremely low pathogenicity and causes sub-clinical to mild symptoms. This was confirmed in a study that infected hamsters with CHOV. All of the hamsters tested positive for CHOV, but none exhibited any symptoms.[2] Natural reservoir The virus was isolated from the northern pygmy rice rat in El Choclo in the Los Santos Province in western Panama. Transmission Choclo orthohantavirus has not been shown to transfer from person-to-person. Transmission by aerosolized rodent excreta still remains the only known way the virus is transmitted to humans. In general, droplet and/or fomite transfer has not been shown in the hantaviruses in general, in

Viral diseases

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Rodent-carried diseases

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Hantaviridae

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Argentinian mammarenavirus

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Argentinian mammarenavirus

Argentinian mammarenavirus,[1] better known as the Junin virus or Junín virus (JUNV),[2] is an arenavirus in the Mammarenavirus genus that causes Argentine hemorrhagic fever (AHF).[3] The virus took its original name from the city of Junín, around which the first cases of infection were reported, in 1958. Morphology and genome structure Argentinian mammarenavirus is a negative sense ssRNA enveloped virion with a variable diameter between 50 and 300 nm. The surface of the particle encompasses a layer of T-shaped glycoproteins, each extending up to 10 nm outwards from the envelope, which are important in mediating attachment and entry into host cells. The Argentinian mammarenavirus genome is composed of two single-stranded RNA molecules, each encoding two different genes in an ambisense orientation. The two segments are termed 'short (S)' and 'long (L)' owing to their respective lengths. The short segment (around 3400 nucleotides in length) encodes the nucleocapsid protein and the glycoprotein precursor (GPC

Arenaviridae

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Rodent-carried diseases

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Lujo mammarenavirus

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Lujo mammarenavirus

Lujo is a bisegmented RNA virus—a member of the family Arenaviridae—and a known cause of viral hemorrhagic fever (VHF) in humans. Its name was suggested by the Special Pathogens Unit of the National Institute for Communicable Diseases of the National Health Laboratory Service (NICD-NHLS) by using the first two letters of the names of the cities involved in the 2008 outbreak of the disease, Lusaka (Zambia) and Johannesburg (Republic of South Africa). It is the second pathogenic Arenavirus to be described from the African continent—the first being Lassa virus—and since 2012 has been classed as a "Select Agent" under U.S. law. History Only 5 cases of this virus have ever been reported; all 5 were identified in September and October 2008, and 4 were fatal. Those infections that proved fatal caused death within 10–13 days of showing symptoms. All four patients in which infection proved fatal first showed signs of improvement and then went into respiratory distress, displayed neurological problems, and had circul

Viral diseases

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Rodent-carried diseases

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Arenaviridae

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