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15th-century English nobility


Edward IV of England

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Edward IV of England

Arms of Edward, 4th Duke of York, before he became King Edward IV Edward IV (28 April 1442 – 9 April 1483) was King of England from 4 March 1461 to 3 October 1470,[1][2] and again from 11 April 1471 until his death. He was the first Yorkist king.[3] As a child, he grew up during the early phases of the Wars of the Roses, with his father Richard, 3rd Duke of York claiming to be the rightful heir to the throne in opposition to Henry VI. Richard had multiple times been offered, and later denied, the throne. A series of Yorkist military victories led, in 1460, to the Act of Accord, in which Henry VI disinherited his own son Edward of Westminster and recognized Richard as his heir. The war continued, however, under the leadership of Henry VI's wife Margaret of Anjou, and only a few weeks later Richard was killed in battle, his claims to the throne devolving to his own son Edward. After a series of Yorkist victories over the Lancastrians, Edward proclaimed himself king in March, 1461, traveled to London, and had

15th-century English nobility

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Arthur, Prince of Wales

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Arthur, Prince of Wales

Christ Church Gate, Canterbury Cathedral: arms of King Henry VII (centre) with arms of Prince Arthur (dexter) and his wife Catherine of Aragon (sinister). Probably built in honour of Prince Arthur[1] Arthur Tudor (19/20 September 1486 – 2 April 1502) was Prince of Wales, Earl of Chester and Duke of Cornwall. As the eldest son and heir apparent of Henry VII of England, Arthur was viewed by contemporaries as the great hope of the newly established House of Tudor. His mother, Elizabeth of York, was the daughter of Edward IV, and his birth cemented the union between the House of Tudor and the House of York. Plans for Arthur's marriage began before his third birthday; he was installed as Prince of Wales two years later. At the age of eleven, he was formally betrothed to Catherine of Aragon, a daughter of the powerful Catholic Monarchs in Spain, in an effort to forge an Anglo-Spanish alliance against France. Arthur was well educated and, contrary to some modern belief, was in good health for the majority of his

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16th-century English nobility

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Edward V of England

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Edward V of England

Edward V (2 November 1470 – c. 1483)[1] succeeded his father, Edward IV, as King of England and Lord of Ireland[2] upon the latter's death on 9 April 1483. He was never crowned, and his brief reign was dominated by the influence of his uncle and Lord Protector, the Duke of Gloucester, who deposed him to reign as Richard III on 26 June 1483; this was confirmed by the Act entitled Titulus Regius, which denounced any further claims through his father's heirs. Edward and his younger brother Richard of Shrewsbury, Duke of York, were the Princes in the Tower who disappeared after being sent to heavily guarded royal lodgings in the Tower of London. Responsibility for their deaths is widely attributed to Richard III, but the lack of any solid evidence and conflicting contemporary accounts allow for other possibilities. Early life Cardinal Bourchier urges the mother of Edward V to let her son Richard out of Sanctuary, by John Z. Bell Edward was born on 2 November 1470 in Cheyneygates, the medieval house of the

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15th-century English nobility

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George Plantagenet, 1st Duke of Clarence

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George Plantagenet, 1st Duke of Clarence

Arms of George Plantagenet, Duke of Clarence: Royal arms differenced by a label of three points argent each charged with a canton gules.[1][2] George Plantagenet, Duke of Clarence (21 October 1449 – 18 February 1478), KG, was a son of Richard Plantagenet, 3rd Duke of York, and Cecily Neville, and the brother of English kings Edward IV and Richard III. He played an important role in the dynastic struggle between rival factions of the Plantagenets known as the Wars of the Roses. Though a member of the House of York, he switched sides to support the Lancastrians, before reverting to the Yorkists. He was later convicted of treason against his brother, Edward IV, and was executed (allegedly by being drowned in a butt of Malmsey wine). He appears as a character in William Shakespeare's plays Henry VI, Part 3 and Richard III, in which his death is attributed to the machinations of Richard. Life George was born on 21 October 1449 in Dublin at a time when his father, the Duke of York, had begun to challenge Henry

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Lords Lieutenant of Ireland

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Thomas of Lancaster, 1st Duke of Clarence

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Thomas of Lancaster, 1st Duke of Clarence

Thomas of Lancaster, 1st Duke of Clarence KG (autumn 1387 – 22 March 1421) was a medieval English prince and soldier, the second son of King Henry IV of England, brother of Henry V, and heir to the throne in the event of his brother's death. He acted as councillor and aide to both. After the death of his father, he participated in the military campaigns of his brother in France during the Hundred Years' War. Left in charge of English forces in France when Henry returned temporarily to England after his marriage to Catherine of Valois, Thomas led the English in their disastrous defeat at the hands of a mainly Scottish force that came to the aid of the French at the Battle of Baugé. In a rash attack, he and his leading knights were surrounded, and Thomas was killed. Origins Thomas was born before 25 November 1387 as on that date his father's accounts note a payment made to a woman described as his nurse.[2] 29 September 1388[3] sometimes features as his birth date, but it now seems clear that Thomas was born

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1387 births

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Bridget of York

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Bridget of York

Bridget of York (10 November 1480 – 1517) was an English princess, the tenth child and seventh daughter of Edward IV of England and Queen Elizabeth Woodville. She was the youngest sister of Elizabeth of York, Mary of York, Cecily of York, Edward V, Margaret of York, Richard of Shrewsbury, 1st Duke of York, Anne of York, George Plantagenet, 1st Duke of Bedford, and Catherine of York. She was also an aunt of Henry VIII of England. Princess Bridget Plantagenet, Dedicated to the Nunnery at Dartford by James Northcote (1822) She was born in Eltham, London on 10 November 1480, and was baptised by Edward Story, Bishop of Chichester on 11 November 1480. Her godmothers at the baptismal fount were her paternal grandmother, Cecily Neville, Duchess of York, and her oldest sister, Elizabeth of York. Her godfather was William Waynflete, Bishop of Winchester. Bridget's aunt Margaret, Lady Maltravers, served as her godmother at her confirmation.[1] Bridget was likely named after St. Bridget of Sweden.[2] Her parents ma

15th-century English nobility

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16th-century Christian nuns

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15th-century Christian nuns

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Henry V of England

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Henry V of England

Henry V (16 September 1386 – 31 August 1422), also called Henry of Monmouth, was King of England from 1413 until his death in 1422. He was the second English monarch of the House of Lancaster. Despite his relatively short reign, Henry's outstanding military successes in the Hundred Years' War against France, most notably in his famous victory at the Battle of Agincourt in 1415, made England one of the strongest military powers in Europe.[3] Immortalised in Shakespeare's "Henriad" plays, Henry is known and celebrated as one of the greatest warrior kings of medieval England. In his youth, during the reign of his father Henry IV, Henry gained military experience fighting the Welsh during the revolt of Owain Glyndŵr and against the powerful aristocratic Percy family of Northumberland at the Battle of Shrewsbury. Henry acquired an increasing role in England's government due to the king's declining health, but disagreements between father and son led to political conflict between the two. After his father's death

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14th-century English nobility

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Henry VI of England

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Henry VI of England

Henry VI (6 December 1421 – 21 May 1471) was King of England from 1422 to 1461 and again from 1470 to 1471, and disputed King of France from 1422 to 1453. The only child of Henry V, he succeeded to the English throne at the age of nine months upon his father's death, and succeeded to the French throne on the death of his maternal grandfather Charles VI shortly afterwards. Henry inherited the long-running Hundred Years' War (1337–1453), in which his uncle Charles VII contested his claim to the French throne. He is the only English monarch to also have been crowned King of France (as Henry II, in 1431). His early reign, when several people were ruling for him, saw the pinnacle of English power in France, but subsequent military, diplomatic, and economic problems had seriously endangered the English cause by the time Henry was declared fit to rule in 1437. He found his realm in a difficult position, faced with setbacks in France and divisions among the nobility at home. Unlike his father, Henry is described as

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Edward of Middleham, Prince of Wales

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Edward of Middleham, Prince of Wales

Edward of Middleham, Prince of Wales, Earl of Chester, Duke of Cornwall, 1st Earl of Salisbury (December 1473 – 9 April 1484), was the son and heir apparent of King Richard III of England by his wife Anne Neville. He was Richard's only legitimate child and died aged ten.[1] Birth and titles Edward was allegedly born in December 1473[2] at Middleham Castle, a stronghold close to York that became Richard and Anne's principal base in northern England.[3] The date of 1473 is, however, not universally accepted; Professor Charles Ross wrote that the date 1473 "lacks authority. In fact, he was probably not born until 1476."[4] The act of Parliament that settled the dispute between George of Clarence and Richard over Anne Beauchamp's inheritance just as if the Countess of Warwick "was naturally dead" was dated May 1474.[5] The doubts cast by Clarence on the validity of Richard and Anne's marriage were addressed by a clause protecting their rights in the event they were divorced (i.e. of their marriage being declare

15th-century English nobility

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Lords Lieutenant of Ireland

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John de la Pole, 1st Earl of Lincoln

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John de la Pole, 1st Earl of Lincoln

John de la Pole, 1st Earl of Lincoln (c. 1460 – 16 June 1487) was a leading figure in the Yorkist aristocracy during the Wars of the Roses. After the death of his uncle Richard III, de la Pole was reconciled with the new Tudor regime, but two years later he organised a major Yorkist rebellion. He sought to place Lambert Simnel on the throne, claiming that Simnel was in fact his cousin Edward, Earl of Warwick. Whether or not de la Pole intended to take the throne for himself if he were successful is not known, but has been widely suspected by historians. He was defeated and killed at the Battle of Stoke in 1487. Early life John de la Pole was the eldest son of John de la Pole, 2nd Duke of Suffolk and Elizabeth of York, Duchess of Suffolk. His father was the son of Alice Chaucer, granddaughter of Geoffrey Chaucer. His mother was the sixth child and third daughter born to Richard Plantagenet, 3rd Duke of York and Cecily Neville. He was thus the nephew of the Yorkist kings Edward IV of England and his successo

15th-century English nobility

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Lords Lieutenant of Ireland

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People convicted under a Bill of Attainder

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John of Lancaster, 1st Duke of Bedford

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John of Lancaster, 1st Duke of Bedford

John of Lancaster, 1st Duke of Bedford, Knight of the Garter, kneels before Saint George who wears the blue mantle of the Order of the Garter. Illuminated miniature from the Bedford Hours, formerly in the Duke's private library John of Lancaster, 1st Duke of Bedford KG (20 June 1389 – 14 September 1435) was a medieval English prince, general and statesman who commanded England's armies in France during a critical phase of the Hundred Years' War. Bedford was the third son of King Henry IV of England, brother to Henry V, and acted as regent of France for his nephew Henry VI. Despite his military and administrative talent, the situation in France had severely deteriorated by the time of his death.[1] Bedford was a capable administrator and soldier, and his effective management of the war brought the English to the height of their power in France. However, difficulties mounted after the arrival of Joan of Arc, and his efforts were further thwarted by political divisions at home and the waverings of England's ke

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Edmund Mortimer, 5th Earl of March

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Edmund Mortimer, 5th Earl of March

Arms of Mortimer: Barry or and azure, on a chief of the first two pallets between two base esquires of the second over all an inescutcheon argent Edmund Mortimer, 5th Earl of March, 7th Earl of Ulster (6 November 1391 – 18 January 1425) was an English nobleman and a potential claimant to the throne of England. A great-great-grandson of King Edward III of England, he was heir presumptive to King Richard II of England, his granduncle, when Richard II was deposed in favour of Henry IV. Edmund Mortimer's claim to the throne was the basis of rebellions and plots against Henry IV and his son Henry V, and was later taken up by the House of York in the Wars of the Roses, though Mortimer himself was an important and loyal vassal of Henry V and Henry VI. Edmund was the last Earl of March of the Mortimer family. Early life Edmund Mortimer, 5th Earl of March, was born at New Forest, Westmeath, one of his family's Irish estates,[1] on 6 November 1391, the son of Roger Mortimer, 4th Earl of March, and Eleanor Holland.

15th-century English nobility

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Lords Lieutenant of Ireland

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Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester

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Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester

Arms of Humphrey of Lancaster, 1st Duke of Gloucester: Arms of King Henry IV differenced by a bordure argent Humphrey of Lancaster, Duke of Gloucester (3 October 1390 – 23 February 1447) was an English prince, soldier, and literary patron.[1] He was (as he styled himself) "son, brother and uncle of kings", being the fourth and youngest son of Henry IV of England, the brother of Henry V, and the uncle of Henry VI. Gloucester fought in the Hundred Years' War and acted as Lord Protector of England during the minority of his nephew. A controversial figure, he has been characterised as reckless, unprincipled, and fractious, but is also noted for his intellectual activity and for being the first significant English patron of humanism,[2] in the context of the Renaissance. Unlike his brothers, Humphrey was given no major military command by his father, instead receiving an intellectual upbringing. Created Duke of Gloucester in 1414, he participated in Henry V's campaigns during the Hundred Years' War in France: h

15th-century English nobility

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Lords Protector of England

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Richard of Shrewsbury, Duke of York

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Richard of Shrewsbury, Duke of York

Richard of Shrewsbury, Duke of York KG (born 17 August 1473), was the sixth child and second son of King Edward IV of England and Elizabeth Woodville, born in Shrewsbury. Richard and his older brother, who briefly reigned as King Edward V of England, mysteriously disappeared shortly after Richard III became king in 1483. Dukedoms Prince Richard was created Duke of York in May 1474 and made a Knight of the Garter the following year. From this time on, it became a tradition for the second son of the English sovereign to be Duke of York. He was created Earl of Nottingham on 12 June 1476. On 15 January 1478, in St Stephen's Chapel, Westminster, when he was about 4 years old, he married the 5-year-old Anne de Mowbray, 8th Countess of Norfolk, who had inherited the vast Mowbray estates in 1476. Because York's father's-in-law dukedom had become extinct when Anne could not inherit it, he was created Duke of Norfolk and Earl Warenne on 7 February 1477. When Anne de Mowbray died in November 1481 her estates should ha

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Edward Plantagenet, 17th Earl of Warwick

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Edward Plantagenet, 17th Earl of Warwick

Edward Plantagenet, 17th Earl of Warwick (25 February 1475 – 28 November 1499) was the son of George Plantagenet, 1st Duke of Clarence, and a potential claimant to the English throne during the reigns of both Richard III (1483–1485) and his successor, Henry VII (1485–1509). He was also a younger brother of Margaret Pole, 8th Countess of Salisbury. Life He was born on 25 February 1475, at Warwick, the family home of his mother, the Duchess of Clarence, formerly Lady Isabel Neville, elder daughter of Richard Neville, 16th Earl of Warwick. He was created Earl of Warwick in 1478 shortly after the attainder and execution of his father for treason. His potential claim to the throne following the deposition of his cousin Edward V in 1483 was overlooked because of the argument that the attainder of his father also barred Warwick from the succession (although that could have been reversed by an Act of Parliament). Despite this, he was knighted at York by Richard III in September 1483.[1] In 1480,[2] Warwick was mad

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Richard of York, 3rd Duke of York

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Richard of York, 3rd Duke of York

Richard of York, 3rd Duke of York (22 September 1411 – 30 December 1460), also named Richard Plantagenet, was a leading English magnate, a great-grandson of King Edward III through his father, and a great-great-great-grandson of the same king through his mother. He inherited vast estates and served in various offices of state in Ireland, France, and England, a country he ultimately governed as Lord Protector during the madness of King Henry VI. His conflicts with Henry's wife, Margaret of Anjou, and other members of Henry's court, as well as his competing claim on the throne, were a leading factor in the political upheaval of mid-fifteenth-century England, and a major cause of the Wars of the Roses. Richard eventually attempted to take the throne, but was dissuaded, although it was agreed that he would become king on Henry's death. But within a few weeks of securing this agreement, he died in battle. Two of his sons, Edward IV and Richard III, later ascended the throne. Descent Arms of Richard of York, 3

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Lords Protector of England

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Ralph Neville, 2nd Earl of Westmorland

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Ralph Neville, 2nd Earl of Westmorland

Ralph Neville, 2nd Earl of Westmorland (4 April 1406 – 3 November 1484) was an English nobleman. Origins Ralph Neville was born at Cockermouth Castle (which was temporarily in Neville hands following a rebellion of the rival Percy family),[3] Cumberland in northern England, and was baptized there on 4 April 1406.[4] He was the eldest son of Sir John Neville (d.1420), and Elizabeth Holland (c. 1388–1423), daughter of Thomas Holland, 2nd Earl of Kent.[2] He had two brothers, John Neville, Baron Neville (c.1410–1461), who was killed at the Battle of Towton on 29 March 1461,[2] and Sir Thomas Neville (died 22 February 1458)[5] of Brancepeth, and one sister, Margaret, who married Sir William Lucy of Woodcroft, Bedfordshire.[6] Career When his father died shortly before 20 May 1420 while campaigning in France,[7] Ralph Neville became heir apparent to his grandfather, Ralph Neville, 1st Earl of Westmorland. He succeeded to the earldom in 1425, but spent much of the rest of his life attempting to recover his inh

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Earls of Westmorland

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1408 births

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Edward of Westminster, Prince of Wales

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Edward of Westminster, Prince of Wales

Edward of Westminster (13 October 1453 – 4 May 1471), also known as Edward of Lancaster, was the only son of King Henry VI of England and Margaret of Anjou. He was killed aged seventeen at the Battle of Tewkesbury, making him the only heir apparent to the English throne to die in battle. Early life Edward was born at the Palace of Westminster, London, the only son of King Henry VI of England and his wife, Margaret of Anjou. At the time, there was strife between Henry's supporters and those of Richard Plantagenet, 3rd Duke of York, who had a claim to the throne and challenged the authority of Henry's officers of state. Henry was suffering from mental illness, and there were widespread rumours that the prince was the result of an affair between his mother and one of her loyal supporters. Edmund Beaufort, 2nd Duke of Somerset and James Butler, 5th Earl of Ormonde, were both suspected of fathering Prince Edward;[1] however, there is no firm evidence to support the rumours, and Henry himself never doubted the bo

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Ralph Neville, 1st Earl of Westmorland

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Ralph Neville, 1st Earl of Westmorland

Coat of arms of Ralph Neville, 1st Earl of Westmorland: Gules, a saltire argent Ralph Neville, 1st Earl of Westmorland KG PC Earl Marshal (c. 1364 – 21 October 1425), was an English nobleman of the House of Neville. Family Ralph Neville was born about 1364, the son of John Neville, 3rd Baron Neville de Raby, and Maud Percy (d. before 18 February 1379), daughter of Henry de Percy, 2nd Baron Percy of Alnwick, Northumberland, by Idoine de Clifford, daughter of Robert de Clifford, 1st Baron de Clifford.[1] Neville had a younger brother, and five sisters:[2] Thomas Neville, 5th Baron Furnivall, who married Joan Furnival. Father of Maud Neville, 6th Baroness Furnivall, wife of John Talbot, 7th Baron Talbot. Lady Alice Neville, who married William Deincourt, 3rd Lord Deincourt Lady Maud Neville, who married Sir William le Scrope[3] Lady Idoine Neville Lady Eleanor Neville, who married Ralph Lumley, 1st Baron Lumley. Lady Elizabeth Neville, who became a nun. Neville's father married secondly, before 9 O

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Earls of Westmorland

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Ralph Neville, 4th Earl of Westmorland

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Ralph Neville, 4th Earl of Westmorland

Field of the Cloth of Gold, engraving by James Basire (1774) Ralph Neville, 4th Earl of Westmorland KG, (21 February 1498 – 24 April 1549) was an English peer and soldier. He was the grandson of Ralph Neville, 3rd Earl of Westmorland, and the father of Henry Neville, 5th Earl of Westmorland. Family Ralph Neville, born 21 February 1498, was the son of Ralph Neville (d. 1498) and Edith Sandys (d. 22 August 1529), daughter of Sir William Sandys of the Vyne by Edith Cheyne, daughter of Sir John Cheyne. He was the grandson of Ralph Neville, 3rd Earl of Westmorland, and Isabel Booth.[1] Neville had a brother who died young, and a sister, Isabel, who married firstly, Sir Robert Plumpton, and secondly, Lawrence Kighley, Esq.[2] After his father's death in 1498, Neville's mother, Edith, married Thomas Darcy, 1st Baron Darcy of Darcy, who was beheaded on Tower Hill 30 June 1537 for his part in the Pilgrimage of Grace. She died at Stepney on 22 August 1529, and was buried at the Friars Observant, Greenwich.[3] Car

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Ralph Neville, 3rd Earl of Westmorland

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Ralph Neville, 3rd Earl of Westmorland

Ralph Neville, 3rd Earl of Westmorland (c. 1456 – 6 February 1499) was an English peer. He was the grandfather of Ralph Neville, 4th Earl of Westmorland. Origins He was born in about 1456, the only child of John Neville, Baron Neville (younger brother of Ralph Neville, 2nd Earl of Westmorland) by his wife Anne Holland, daughter of John Holland, 2nd Duke of Exeter (1395-1447).[1] Career Neville's father was slain fighting for the Lancastrians at the Battle of Towton on 29 March 1461, and attainted on 4 November of that year. On 6 October 1472 Ralph Neville obtained the reversal of his father's attainder and the restoration of the greater part of his estates, and thereby became Lord Neville (1459 creation).[2] On 18 April 1475 Neville was created a Knight of the Bath together with the sons of King Edward IV.[3] He was a justice of the peace in Durham. For his 'good services against the rebels', on 23 March 1484 King Richard III granted Neville manors in Somerset and Berkshire and the reversion of lands whi

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1456 births

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Margaret Pole, Countess of Salisbury

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Margaret Pole, Countess of Salisbury

Margaret Pole, Countess of Salisbury (14 August 1473 – 27 May 1541), was an English peeress. She was the daughter of George, Duke of Clarence, the brother of kings Edward IV and Richard III. Margaret was one of two women in 16th century England to be a peeress in her own right with no titled husband.[2] One of the few surviving members of the Plantagenet dynasty after the Wars of the Roses, she was executed in 1541 at the command of Henry VIII, who was the son of her first cousin Elizabeth of York. Pope Leo XIII beatified her as a martyr for the Catholic Church on 29 December 1886.[3] Life Richard Neville the "Kingmaker" George, Duke of Clarence Margaret was born at Farleigh Hungerford Castle in Somerset, the only surviving daughter of George Plantagenet, 1st Duke of Clarence, and his wife Isabel Neville, who was the elder daughter of Richard Neville, 16th Earl of Warwick, and his wife Anne de Beauchamp, Countess of Warwick. Her maternal grandfather was killed fighting against her uncle, Edward IV of

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Executions at the Tower of London

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House of York

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Jasper Tudor

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Jasper Tudor

Jasper Tudor, Duke of Bedford, Earl of Pembroke, also called Jasper of Hatfield (c. November 1431 – 21/26 December 1495) was the uncle of King Henry VII of England and a leading architect of his nephew's successful accession to the throne in 1485. He was from the noble Tudor family of Penmynydd in North Wales. Jasper Tudor's coat of arms, granted to him by his maternal half-brother, King Henry VI, quarters the three lilies of France with the three lions of England, with the addition of a bordure azure with martlets or (that is, a blue border featuring golden martlets).[1] Family and early life Jasper was the second son of Owen Tudor and the former Queen Catherine of Valois, the widow of Henry V of England. He was half-brother to Henry VI. Through his father, Jasper was a direct descendant of Ednyfed Fychan, Llywelyn the Great's renowned Chancellor. This connection added greatly to his status in Wales. Through his mother, a daughter of Charles VI of France, he was descended from the Valois Kings of France.

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Thomas Grey, 1st Marquess of Dorset

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Thomas Grey, 1st Marquess of Dorset

Arms of Grey of Groby: Barry of six argent and azure Thomas Grey, 1st Marquess of Dorset, 1st Earl of Huntingdon, 7th Baron Ferrers of Groby, KG (1455 – 20 September 1501[1][2]) was an English nobleman, courtier and the eldest son of Elizabeth Woodville and her first husband Sir John Grey of Groby. Her second marriage to King Edward IV made her Queen of England, thus elevating Grey's status at court and in the realm as the stepson of the King.[3] Through his mother's assiduous endeavours, he made two materially advantageous marriages to wealthy heiresses, the King's niece Anne Holland and Cecily Bonville, 7th Baroness Harington. By the latter he had 14 children. Family Thomas Grey was born in 1455 close to the Palace of Westminster, near the City of London. He was the elder son of Sir John Grey (c.1432-1461) of Groby in Leicestershire, by his wife Elizabeth Woodville, who later became queen consort to King Edward IV.[4] Career His mother endeavoured to improve his estates by the conventional methods of

1455 births

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Thomas Grey, 2nd Marquess of Dorset

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Thomas Grey, 2nd Marquess of Dorset

Thomas Grey, 2nd Marquess of Dorset KG KB PC (22 June 1477 – 10 October 1530) was an English peer, courtier, soldier, and landowner. Early life Grey was the third son and heir of Thomas Grey, 1st Marquess of Dorset (1455–1501), at that time England's only marquess, and his wife, Cecily Bonville, the daughter and heiress of William Bonville, 6th Baron Harington of Aldingham. His mother was suo jure 7th Baroness Harington of Aldingham and 2nd Baroness Bonville, and the richest heiress in England. The first marquess was the eldest son of Queen Elizabeth Woodville, a stepson of King Edward IV and a half-brother of Edward, Prince of Wales, later King Edward V.[1] According to some reports, the young Grey attended Magdalen College School, Oxford, and he is uncertainly said to have been taught (either at the school or else privately tutored) by the future Cardinal Wolsey.[1] Grey's father was opposed to King Richard III, and after the older Thomas joined Buckingham's failed rebellion of 1483, father and son fled

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Elizabeth Woodville

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Elizabeth Woodville

Elizabeth Woodville (also spelled Wydville, Wydeville, or Widvile[nb 1]) (c. 1437[1] – 8 June 1492) was Queen consort of England, as the spouse of King Edward IV from 1464 until his death in 1483. At the time of her birth, her family was of middle rank in the English social hierarchy. Her mother Jacquetta of Luxembourg had previously been an aunt by marriage to Henry VI. Elizabeth's first marriage was to a minor supporter of the House of Lancaster, Sir John Grey of Groby. He died at the Second Battle of St Albans, leaving Elizabeth a widowed mother of two sons. Her second marriage to Edward IV was a cause célèbre of the day, thanks to Elizabeth's great beauty and lack of great estates. Edward was the first king of England since the Norman Conquest to marry one of his subjects,[2][3] and Elizabeth was the first such consort to be crowned queen.[nb 2] Her marriage greatly enriched her siblings and children, but their advancement incurred the hostility of Richard Neville, Earl of Warwick, 'The Kingmaker', and

15th-century English nobility

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Thomas Howard, 3rd Duke of Norfolk

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Thomas Howard, 3rd Duke of Norfolk

Arms of Thomas Howard, 3rd Duke of Norfolk: Quarterly of 4: 1: Gules, on a bend between six cross-crosslets fitchy argent an escutcheon or charged with a demi-lion rampant pierced through the mouth by an arrow within a double tressure flory counterflory of the first (Howard, with augmentation of honour); 2: Gules, three lions passant guardant in pale or armed and langued azure a label of three points argent (Plantagenet, arms of Thomas of Brotherton, 1st Earl of Norfolk); 3: Chequy or and azure (de Warenne, Earl of Surrey); 4: Gules, a lion rampant argent (Mowbray) Thomas Howard, 3rd Duke of Norfolk KG PC (1473 – 25 August 1554) was a prominent English politician of the Tudor era. He was an uncle of two of the wives of King Henry VIII, namely Anne Boleyn and Catherine Howard, both of whom were beheaded, and played a major role in the machinations affecting these royal marriages. After falling from favour in 1546, he was stripped of the dukedom and imprisoned in the Tower of London, avoiding execution when He

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Lords Lieutenant of Ireland

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Robert Radcliffe, 1st Earl of Sussex

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Robert Radcliffe, 1st Earl of Sussex

Arms of Radcliffe: Argent, a bend engrailed sable. These were also the arms of the Radcliffe family of Warleigh, Tamerton Foliot, Devon (17th century) and of the Radcliffe Baronets (created 1813) Field of the Cloth of Gold, engraving by James Basire (1774) Robert Radcliffe, 10th Baron Fitzwalter, 1st Earl of Sussex, KG, KB, PC (c. 1483 – 27 November 1542), also spelled Radclyffe, Ratcliffe, Ratcliff, etc., was a prominent courtier and soldier during the reigns of Henry VII and Henry VIII who served as Chamberlain of the Exchequer and Lord Great Chamberlain. Family Robert Radcliffe, born about 1483, was the only son of John Radcliffe (1452-1496), 9th Baron FitzWalter, and Margaret Whetehill, widow of Thomas Walden, gentleman, and daughter of Robert Whetehill, esquire, by his wife, Joan.[1] Radcliffe had five sisters, Mary, the wife of Sir Edward Darrell; Bridget; Ursula; Jane, a nun; and Anne, wife of Sir Walter Hobart.[2] Career In October 1495 Robert Radcliffe's father was attainted of high treason f

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Barons FitzWalter

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List of peers 1450–1459

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List of peers 1450–1459

This page lists all peers who held extant titles between the years 1450 and 1459. Peerage of England Title Holder Date gained Date lost Notes Duke of Cornwall (1337) none 1422 1453 Edward of Westminster 1453 1471 Duke of York (1385) Richard of York, 3rd Duke of York 1426 1460 Duke of Norfolk (1397) John de Mowbray, 3rd Duke of Norfolk 1432 1461 Duke of Exeter (1443) Henry Holland, 3rd Duke of Exeter 1447 1461 Duke of Buckingham (1444) Humphrey Stafford, 1st Duke of Buckingham 1444 1460 Duke of Somerset (1448) Edmund Beaufort, 1st Duke of Somerset 1448 1455 Died Henry Beaufort, 2nd Duke of Somerset 1455 1464 Duke of Suffolk (1448) William de la Pole, 1st Duke of Suffolk 1448 1450 Died; titles considered forfeited John de la Pole, 2nd Duke of Suffolk 1450 1463 Title recognized in 1463 Earl of Warwick (1088) Anne Neville, 16th Countess of Warwick and Richard Neville, 16th Earl of Warwick 14481449 14921471 Earl of Arundel (1138) William FitzAlan, 16th Earl of

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1450s in Ireland

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List of peers 1440–1449

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List of peers 1440–1449

This page lists all peers who held extant titles between the years 1440 and 1449. Peerage of England Title Holder Date gained Date lost Notes Duke of Cornwall (1337) none 1422 1453 Duke of York (1385) Richard of York, 3rd Duke of York 1426 1460 Duke of Norfolk (1397) John de Mowbray, 3rd Duke of Norfolk 1432 1461 Duke of Gloucester (1414) Humphrey of Lancaster, 1st Duke of Gloucester 1414 1447 Died, title extinct Duke of Exeter (1443) John Holland, 2nd Duke of Exeter 1443 1447 Henry Holland, 3rd Duke of Exeter 1447 1461 Duke of Somerset (1443) John Beaufort, 1st Duke of Somerset 1443 1444 New creation, also Earl of Kendal; Died, title extinct Duke of Buckingham (1444) Humphrey Stafford, 1st Duke of Buckingham 1444 1460 New creation Duke of Warwick (1445) Henry de Beauchamp, 1st Duke of Warwick 1445 1446 New creation for the 14th Earl of Warwick; Died, title extinct Duke of Somerset (1448) Edmund Beaufort, 1st Duke of Somerset 1448 1455 New creation; also Marquess of

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Lists of peers by decade

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List of peers 1470–1479

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List of peers 1470–1479

This page lists all peers who held extant titles between the years 1470 and 1479. Peerage of England Title Holder Date gained Date lost Notes Duke of Cornwall (1337) Edward of Westminster 1453 1471 Died, when his peerage dignities lapsed to the Crown Edward Plantagenet 1470/1471 1483 Created Earl of March, and of Pembroke in 1479 Duke of Norfolk (1397) John de Mowbray, 4th Duke of Norfolk 1461 1476 Died, title became extinct; Earldom of Norfolk succeeded by a daughter, see below Duke of Buckingham (1444) Henry Stafford, 2nd Duke of Buckingham 1460 1483 Duke of Somerset (1448) Edmund Beaufort, 3rd Duke of Somerset 1464 1471 Died, title became extinct Duke of Suffolk (1448) John de la Pole, 2nd Duke of Suffolk 1450 1491 Duke of Clarence (1461) George Plantagenet, 1st Duke of Clarence 1461 1478 Created Earl of Salisbury, and of Warwick in 1472; attained, and all his honours became forfeited Duke of Gloucester (1461) Richard Plantagenet, 1st Duke of Gloucester 1461 1483 Duke

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List of peers 1460–1469

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List of peers 1460–1469

This page lists all peers who held extant titles between the years 1460 and 1469. Peerage of England Title Holder Date gained Date lost Notes Duke of Cornwall (1337) Edward of Westminster 1453 1471 Duke of York (1385) Richard of York, 3rd Duke of York 1426 1460 Edward Plantagenet, 4th Duke of York 1460 1461 Proclaimed King, and all his honours merged in the Crown Duke of Norfolk (1397) John de Mowbray, 3rd Duke of Norfolk 1432 1461 Died John de Mowbray, 4th Duke of Norfolk 1461 1476 Duke of Exeter (1443) Henry Holland, 3rd Duke of Exeter 1447 1461 Attainted, and his honours became forfeited Duke of Buckingham (1444) Humphrey Stafford, 1st Duke of Buckingham 1444 1460 Henry Stafford, 2nd Duke of Buckingham 1460 1483 Duke of Somerset (1448) Henry Beaufort, 2nd Duke of Somerset 1455 1464 Attainted in 1461; restored in 1463; Died Edmund Beaufort, 3rd Duke of Somerset 1464 1471 Duke of Suffolk (1448) John de la Pole, 2nd Duke of Suffolk 1450 1491 Title recognized in 1

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List of peers 1490–1499

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List of peers 1490–1499

This page lists all peers who held extant titles between the years 1490 and 1499. Peerage of England Title Holder Date gained Date lost Notes Duke of Cornwall (1337) Arthur Tudor 1486 1502 Duke of Buckingham (1444) Edward Stafford, 3rd Duke of Buckingham 1485 1521 Duke of Suffolk (1448) John de la Pole, 2nd Duke of Suffolk 1450 1491 Died Edmund de la Pole, 3rd Duke of Suffolk 1491 1493 Surrendered the Dukedom Duke of Norfolk (1483) none 1485 1514 Attainted Duke of Bedford (1485) Jasper Tudor, 1st Duke of Bedford 1485 1495 Died, title extinct Duke of York (1494) Henry Tudor 1494 1509 New creation Duke of Somerset (1499) Edmund Tudor, Duke of Somerset 1499 1500 New creation; died; title extinct Marquess of Dorset (1475) Thomas Grey, 1st Marquess of Dorset 1475 1501 Marquess of Berkeley (1489) William de Berkeley, 1st Marquess of Berkeley 1489 1492 Died, title extinct Earl of Warwick (1088) Anne Neville, 16th Countess of Warwick 1448 1492 Died Edward Plantagenet, 17

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Lists of peers by decade

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List of peers 1480–1489

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List of peers 1480–1489

This page lists all peers who held extant titles between the years 1480 and 1489. Peerage of England Title Holder Date gained Date lost Notes Duke of Cornwall (1337) Edward Plantagenet 1470/1471 1483 Ascended the Throne, when all his honours merged in the Crown None 1483 1483 during the reign of Edward V. Edward of Middleham 1483 1484 Died, and his peerage dignities lapsed to the Crown None 1484 1486 - Arthur Tudor 1486 1502 Duke of Buckingham (1444) Henry Stafford, 2nd Duke of Buckingham 1460 1483 Attainted Edward Stafford, 3rd Duke of Buckingham 1485 1521 Restored Duke of Suffolk (1448) John de la Pole, 2nd Duke of Suffolk 1450 1491 Duke of Gloucester (1461) Richard Plantagenet, 1st Duke of Gloucester 1461 1483 Ascended the Throne, when all his honours merged in the Crown Duke of York (1474) Richard of Shrewsbury, 1st Duke of York 1474 1483 1st Duke of Norfolk, 1st Earl of Nottingham, 1st Earl Warenne; Died, titles became extinct Duke of Norfolk (1483) John Howard,

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1480s in Ireland

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Anne Beauchamp, 15th Countess of Warwick

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Anne Beauchamp, 15th Countess of Warwick

Anne Beauchamp, 15th Countess of Warwick (14 February 1444 – 3 June 1449) was the only child and heiress of the English nobleman Henry Beauchamp, Duke of Warwick. She died a child aged 5, after which the earldom of Warwick was inherited by her paternal aunt. The title then passed by marriage to Anne's maternal uncle, Richard Neville, the famous 'Kingmaker' of the later Wars of the Roses. Life Anne Beauchamp was born on 14 February 1444[1] at Cardiff in Wales.[2] Her father was Henry Beauchamp, Duke of Warwick (1425–1446), the last male of the medieval Beauchamp family to hold the Warwick title. Anne's mother was Cecily Neville, sister to Richard Neville, who later played a key role in the Wars of the Roses. On 11 June 1446, Anne's father died.[2] The dukedom of Warwick, created in 1445, had been originally granted to heirs male only,[3] and so became extinct upon Henry Beauchamp's death, but the earldom (created in 1088) allowed for female succession and was therefore inherited by his daughter. She also in

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Earls of Warwick (1088)

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Anne Beauchamp, 16th Countess of Warwick

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Anne Beauchamp, 16th Countess of Warwick

Anne Beauchamp, 16th Countess of Warwick (13 July 1426 – 20 September 1492) was the daughter of Richard Beauchamp, 13th Earl of Warwick, and his second wife Isabel le Despenser, a daughter of Thomas le Despenser (22 September 1373 – 13 January 1399/1400) and Constance of York. Anne Beauchamp was the mother of Anne Neville, Queen consort of England as the spouse of King Richard III.[1] Inheritance Anne de Beauchamp was born at Caversham Castle in Oxfordshire (now Berkshire). She married Richard Neville 'the Kingmaker' – and her brother Henry Beauchamp married Richard's sister Cecily – in 1436.[2] Following the death of Anne's father in 1439, and subsequently that of her brother Henry in 1446, and his infant daughter Lady Anne in 1449, Neville inherited the title and the considerable estates of the Earldom of Warwick through his wife. However, this was contested by Anne's three older half-sisters, children of her father's first marriage to Elizabeth, heir of Berkeley. One of these, Lady Eleanor, was married

15th-century English nobility

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People from Caversham, Reading

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Richard Neville, 16th Earl of Warwick

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Richard Neville, 16th Earl of Warwick

Richard Neville, 16th Earl of Warwick KG (22 November 1428 – 14 April 1471), known as Warwick the Kingmaker, was an English nobleman, administrator, and military commander. The eldest son of Richard Neville, 5th Earl of Salisbury, he became Earl of Warwick through marriage, and was the wealthiest and most powerful English peer of his age, with political connections that went beyond the country's borders. One of the leaders in the Wars of the Roses, originally on the Yorkist side but later switching to the Lancastrian side, he was instrumental in the deposition of two kings, which led to his epithet of "Kingmaker". Through fortunes of marriage and inheritance, Warwick emerged in the 1450s at the centre of English politics. Originally, he was a supporter of King Henry VI; however, a territorial dispute with Edmund Beaufort, Duke of Somerset, led him to collaborate with Richard, Duke of York, in opposing the king. From this conflict, he gained the strategically valuable post of Captain of Calais, a position tha

15th-century English nobility

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Henry Beauchamp, 1st Duke of Warwick

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Henry Beauchamp, 1st Duke of Warwick

Henry de Beauchamp, 14th Earl and 1st Duke of Warwick (22 March 1425 – 11 June 1446[1]) was an English nobleman. He was the son of Richard Beauchamp, 13th Earl of Warwick, and Isabel le Despenser. In 1434, Henry married Cecily Neville, the eldest daughter of Richard Neville, 5th Earl of Salisbury, and Alice Montagu, Countess of Salisbury. He became 14th Earl of Warwick on his father's death in 1439. His boyhood friendship with King Henry VI and his father's military services placed him high in the King's favour, and he was loaded with titles. In 1444, he was made premier Earl of the realm, and on 14 April 1445, was created Duke of Warwick,[2] and around the same time, granted the Forest of Feckenham.[3] As Duke of Warwick, he was preceded only by the Duke of Norfolk. This precedence was disputed by the Duke of Buckingham, whom it displaced. However, the issue was rendered moot by his death in June, at which time the dukedom expired for lack of heirs-male. He is said to have been crowned King of the Isle of

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Extinct dukedoms in the Peerage of England

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Richard Beauchamp, 13th Earl of Warwick

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Richard Beauchamp, 13th Earl of Warwick

Stained glass depiction of Richard Beauchamp, 13th Earl of Warwick (with original hands and head missing, replaced by head of a woman), St Mary's Church, Warwick. Arms on his tabard: Beauchamp quartering Newburgh with inescutcheon of pretence of Despencer. Fragments of a bear from the Bear and Ragged Staff badge of the Earls of Warwick is visible Richard Beauchamp, 13th Earl of Warwick KG (25 or 28 January 1382 – 30 April 1439) was an English medieval nobleman and military commander. Early life Beauchamp was born at Salwarpe Court[2] in Salwarpe, Worcestershire, the son of Thomas de Beauchamp, 12th Earl of Warwick and Margaret Ferrers, a daughter of William Ferrers, 3rd Baron Ferrers of Groby.[1] His godfather was King Richard II of England.[2] He was knighted at the coronation of King Henry IV, and succeeded as Earl of Warwick in 1401.[3] Welsh Rebellion Soon after reaching his majority and taking responsibility for the Earldom, he saw military action in Wales, defending against a Welsh rebellion led b

15th-century English nobility

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14th-century English nobility

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Thomas Beauchamp, 12th Earl of Warwick

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Thomas Beauchamp, 12th Earl of Warwick

Arms of Beauchamp: Gules, a fesse between six cross crosslets or Thomas de Beauchamp, 12th Earl of Warwick, KG (16 March 1338 – 8 April 1401[1]) was an English medieval nobleman and one of the primary opponents of Richard II. Origins Richard FitzAlan, 11th Earl of Arundel; Thomas of Woodstock, 1st Duke of Gloucester; Thomas de Mowbray, Earl of Nottingham; Henry, Earl of Derby (later Henry IV); and Thomas de Beauchamp, 12th Earl of Warwick, throw down their gauntlets and demand Richard II to let them prove by arms the justice for their rebellion He was the son of Thomas de Beauchamp, 11th Earl of Warwick by his wife Katherine Mortimer,[2] a daughter of Roger Mortimer, 1st Earl of March (d.1369). Career Seal of Thomas de Beauchamp, 12th Earl of Warwick Knighted around 1355,[2] Beauchamp accompanied John of Gaunt in campaigns in France in 1373, and around that time was made a Knight of the Garter. In the parliaments of 1376 and 1377 he was one of those appointed to supervise reform of King Richard I

1401 deaths

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