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Presidents of the Board of Trade


Paul Channon

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Paul Channon

Henry Paul Guinness Channon, Baron Kelvedon, PC (9 October 1935 – 27 January 2007) was Conservative MP for Southend West for 38 years, from 1959 until 1997. He served in various ministerial offices, and was a Cabinet minister for 3½ years, as President of the Board of Trade and Secretary of State for Trade and Industry from January 1986 to June 1987, and then as Secretary of State for Transport to July 1989. Early life Channon was the only child of Sir Henry "Chips" Channon, the politician and diarist, and Lady Honor Channon, eldest daughter of Rupert Guinness, 2nd Earl of Iveagh. His family were well connected: his father's dearest friend was Prince Paul of Yugoslavia; he received a toy panda from King Edward VIII in the run up to the abdication; and he was friends with the Duke of Kent, who was born on the same day, from childhood.[1] He was evacuated to live with the Astor family during the Second World War.[1] Education Channon was educated at two independent schools: at Lockers Park School in Hemel H

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Arthur Cockfield, Baron Cockfield

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Arthur Cockfield, Baron Cockfield

Francis Arthur Cockfield, Baron Cockfield, PC (surname pronounced "Co-feeld"; 28 September 1916 – 8 January 2007), was by turns a civil servant, a company director, a Conservative politician, and a European Commissioner. He served as Minister of State at the Treasury from 1979 to 1982, as Secretary of State for Trade from 1982 until 1983, as Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster from 1983 until 1984, a member of the European Commission from 1984 to 1988 and known as 'The Father of the Single Market'.[1][2] Early life Cockfield was born in Horsham, a month after his father, Lieutenant C. F. Cockfield, died at the Battle of the Somme. He was educated at Dover Grammar School, then read for an LLB and a BSc (Econ) at the London School of Economics. Career Cockfield joined the Inland Revenue in 1938, and was called to the bar at the Inner Temple in 1942. He progressed rapidly within the Inland Revenue, serving as Director of Statistics from 1945 to 1952 and as a Commissioner from 1951 to 1952, before joining Bo

Presidents of the Board of Trade

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Recipients of the Grand Cross of the Order of L...

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British European Commissioners

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Alistair Darling

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Alistair Darling

Alistair Maclean Darling, Baron Darling of Roulanish, PC (born 28 November 1953), is a British Labour Party politician who served as Chancellor of the Exchequer in the Labour Government from 2007-2010 and as a Member of Parliament (MP) from 1987 until he stepped down in 2015, most recently for Edinburgh South West. He was one of only three people to have served in the Cabinet continuously from Labour's landslide victory at the 1997 general election until their defeat at the 2010 general election; the other two were Gordon Brown and Jack Straw. Darling was first appointed as Chief Secretary to the Treasury by Prime Minister Tony Blair in 1997, and was promoted to Secretary of State for Work and Pensions in 1998. After spending four years at that department, he spent a further four years as Secretary of State for Transport, while also becoming Secretary of State for Scotland in 2003. Blair moved Darling for a final time in 2006, making him President of the Board of Trade and Secretary of State for Trade and In

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Winston Churchill

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Winston Churchill

Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill (30 November 1874 – 24 January 1965) was a British politician, army officer, and writer. He was the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1940 to 1945, when he led Britain to victory in the Second World War, and again from 1951 to 1955. Churchill represented five constituencies during his career as a Member of Parliament (MP). Ideologically an economic liberal and imperialist, for most of his career he was a member of the Conservative Party, which he led from 1940 to 1955, but from 1904 to 1924 was a member of the Liberal Party. Of mixed English and American parentage, Churchill was born in Oxfordshire to a wealthy, aristocratic family. He joined the British Army in 1895, and saw action in British India, the Anglo–Sudan War, and the Second Boer War, gaining fame as a war correspondent and writing books about his campaigns. Elected an MP in 1900, initially as a Conservative, he defected to the Liberals in 1904. In H. H. Asquith's Liberal government, Churchill served a

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Auckland Geddes, 1st Baron Geddes

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Auckland Geddes, 1st Baron Geddes

Auckland Campbell Geddes, 1st Baron Geddes, GCMG, KCB, PC, FRSE (21 June 1879 – 8 June 1954) was a British academic, soldier, politician and diplomat. He was a member of David Lloyd George's coalition government during the First World War and also served as Ambassador to the United States. Life Geddes was born in London the son of Auckland Campbell-Geddes, a civil engineer, and his wife Christina Helen MacLeod Anderson.[1] He was the brother of Sir Eric Campbell-Geddes, First Lord of the Admiralty during World War I and principal architect of the Geddes Axe, which led to the retrenchment of British public expenditure following the War. His sister was Dr. Mona Chalmers Watson, the first woman to graduate M.D. from the University of Edinburgh and the first Chief Controller of the Women's Army Auxiliary Corps.[2] Boer War Geddes served in the Second Boer War in South Africa between 1901 and 1902 as a second lieutenant in the Highland Light Infantry. On 2 June 1902 he was promoted a lieutenant in the 3rd (Mil

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Frederick Erroll, 1st Baron Erroll of Hale

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Frederick Erroll, 1st Baron Erroll of Hale

Frederick James Erroll, 1st Baron Erroll of Hale, TD, PC (27 May 1914 – 14 September 2000) was a British Conservative politician. Background and education Erroll was the son of George Murison Bergmans, an engineer, and Kathleen, daughter of George Brodrick Edington, a Glasgow ironmaster. The family changed their German surname to Erroll during the First World War. He was educated at Oundle School and at Trinity College, Cambridge, graduating with a bachelor's degree in mechanical sciences.[1] Early life and Second World War Erroll was an engineer at Metropolitan-Vickers Electrical Co. Ltd, Manchester, 1936–38. He was commissioned into 4th County of London Yeomanry (Sharpshooters), Territorial Army in 1939, and held technical appointments in connection with tank construction and testing (advising SEAC, 1940–43) and served in India and Burma, 1944–45. He left the forces in 1945 with the rank of colonel.[1] Political career Erroll was elected as Member of Parliament for Altrincham and Sale in 1945, holding

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David Eccles, 1st Viscount Eccles

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David Eccles, 1st Viscount Eccles

David McAdam Eccles, 1st Viscount Eccles CH KCVO PC (18 September 1904 – 24 February 1999), was an English Conservative politician. Education and early career Eccles was educated at Winchester College and New College, Oxford, where he obtained a second-class degree in PPE. He worked with the Central Mining Corporation in London and Johannesburg. During the Second World War he worked for the Ministry of Economic Warfare from 1939 to 1940 and for the Ministry of Production from 1942 to 1943 and was Economic Adviser to the British ambassadors at Lisbon and Madrid from 1940 to 1942. Political career Eccles was elected as Member of Parliament (MP) for Chippenham in a wartime by-election in 1943, a seat he held until 1962. He served in the Conservative administrations of Churchill, Eden and Macmillan respectively as Minister of Works from 1951 to 1954 (in which position he helped organise the 1953 Coronation and was appointed KCVO), as Minister of Education from 1954 to 1957 and again from 1959 to 1962 and as P

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United Kingdom Paymasters General

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Anthony Crosland

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Anthony Crosland

(Charles) Anthony Raven Crosland (29 August 1918 – 19 February 1977), also known as Tony Crosland or C. A. R. Crosland, was a British Labour Party politician and author. Crosland served as Member of Parliament for South Gloucestershire (1950–55). He was a prominent socialist intellectual, on the social democratic wing on the right of the party. His influential book The Future of Socialism (1956) argued against many Marxist notions and the traditional Labour Party doctrine that expanding public ownership was essential to make socialism work, arguing instead for prioritising the end of poverty and improving public services. He offered positive alternatives to both the right and left-wing of the Labour Party of his day. Crosland returned to Parliament for Great Grimsby (1959–77). During Harold Wilson's governments of 1964–1970 he served as Economic Secretary to the Treasury (1964), then Minister of State for Economic Affairs (1964–65). Entering the Cabinet as Secretary of State for Education and Science (1965–

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Andrew Duncan (businessman)

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Andrew Duncan (businessman)

Sir Andrew Rae Duncan, GBE (3 June 1884 – 30 March 1952) was a Scottish businessman who was brought into government during World War II, serving twice as both President of the Board of Trade and Minister of Supply.[1] Duncan was a Director of the Bank of England and of Imperial Chemical Industries. He was chairman of the Central Electricity Board from 1927 to 1935, and chairman of the British Iron and Steel Federation from 1935 until 1945. He was elected as a "National" Member of Parliament (MP) for the City of London in a 1940 by-election and was made a member of the Cabinet and a Privy Counsellor. He was re-elected at the 1945 election, stepped down at the 1950 general election.[1] During his time in ministerial office, there was some concern that someone so closely involved with the iron, steel and chemical industries was in charge of their regulation. However, wartime pressures kept Duncan in post and he was undamaged. He returned to the Iron and Steel Federation after the war, working to resist the Lab

People from Irvine, North Ayrshire

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1882 births

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John Davies (businessman)

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John Davies (businessman)

John Emerson Harding Harding-Davies, MBE (8 January 1916 – 4 July 1979) was a successful British businessman who served as Director-General of the Confederation of British Industry during the 1960s. He later went into politics and served in the Cabinet of Edward Heath as the first Secretary of State for Trade and Industry, a position which he held from October 1970 to 4 November 1972. Davies was President of the Board of Trade and from July to October 1970 was Minister of Technology. He became a Privy Councillor and, in 1972, was appointed Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster with special responsibilities for the co-ordination of British policy towards the European Communities. In 1979 Davies was to be made a life peer as Baron Harding-Davies, but died before the creation of the peerage passed the Great Seal. Peerage history was made when, by Royal Warrant bearing the date 27 February 1980, Queen Elizabeth II granted his widow Vera Georgina the title of Lady Harding-Davies; his children The Hon. Frank Davies

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Deaths from cancer in England

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Patricia Hewitt

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Patricia Hewitt

Patricia Hope Hewitt (born 2 December 1948) is an Australian-born British Labour politician, who served in the Cabinet until 2007, most recently as Secretary of State for Health. Hewitt's political career began in the 1970s as a high-profile left-winger and supporter of Tony Benn, even being classified by MI5 as an alleged communist sympathiser. After nine years as General Secretary of the National Council for Civil Liberties, she became press secretary to Neil Kinnock, whom she assisted in the modernisation of the Labour Party. In 1997, she became the first female MP for Leicester West, a safe Labour seat, which she represented for thirteen years. In 2001, she joined Blair's cabinet as President of the Board of Trade and Secretary of State for Trade and Industry, before becoming Health Secretary in 2005. During her tenure, the ban on smoking in public places became legally enforceable. In March 2010, Hewitt was suspended from the Parliamentary Labour Party over the question of political lobbying irregular

Politicians from Leicester

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20th-century British women politicians

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Robert Horne, 1st Viscount Horne of Slamannan

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Robert Horne, 1st Viscount Horne of Slamannan

Robert Stevenson Horne, 1st Viscount Horne of Slamannan, GBE, PC, KC (28 February 1871 – 3 September 1940) was a Scottish businessman, advocate and Unionist politician. He served under David Lloyd George as Minister of Labour between 1919 and 1920, as President of the Board of Trade between 1920 and 1921 and as Chancellor of the Exchequer between 1921 and 1922. In 1937 he was ennobled as Viscount Horne of Slamannan. Background and education Horne was born at Slamannan, Stirlingshire, the son of Reverend Robert Stevenson Horne, the village's Church of Scotland minister, and Mary, daughter of Thomas Lockhead. He was educated at George Watson's College in Edinburgh and the University of Glasgow, where he studied Law[1] and was President of the Students' Representative Council. Career until 1918 Horne then spent a year teaching philosophy at the University College of North Wales, before being elected to the Faculty of Advocates (Scottish Bar) in 1896.[1] He became a successful advocate, specialising in commer

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Michael Heseltine

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Michael Heseltine

Michael Ray Dibdin Heseltine, Baron Heseltine, CH, PC (born 21 March 1933) is a British politician and businessman. Having begun his career as a property developer, he became one of the founders of the publishing house Haymarket. Heseltine served as a Conservative Member of Parliament from 1966 to 2001, and was a prominent figure in the governments of Margaret Thatcher and John Major, including serving as Deputy Prime Minister under the latter. Heseltine entered the Cabinet in 1979 as Secretary of State for the Environment, where he promoted the "Right to Buy" campaign that allowed two million families to purchase their council houses. He was considered an adept media performer and a charismatic minister, although he was frequently at odds with Thatcher on economic issues. He was one of the most visible "wets", whose "One Nation" views were epitomised by his support for the regeneration of Liverpool in the early 1980s when it was facing economic collapse; this later earned him the award of Freeman of the Cit

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John Hutton, Baron Hutton of Furness

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John Hutton, Baron Hutton of Furness

John Matthew Patrick Hutton, Baron Hutton of Furness, PC (born 6 May 1955) is a British Labour politician who was Member of Parliament (MP) for Barrow and Furness from 1992 to 2010 and served in a number of Cabinet offices, including Defence Secretary and Business Secretary. He is now the Chairman of the Royal United Services Institute. Early life Hutton was born 6 May 1955, in London, though his family moved to Westcliff-on-Sea, Essex when he was 8.[1] He was educated at Westcliff High School for Boys and Magdalen College, Oxford, where he joined the Conservative, Liberal and Labour Associations[1] and gained a BA in 1976 and a BCL 1978. He worked for a year as a bus driver.[2] For two years he was a legal adviser to the CBI. From 1980–81, he was a research associate for Templeton College, Oxford. He went on to become a senior law lecturer at the Newcastle Polytechnic from 1981–92 before turning back to politics. Parliamentary career Hutton first stood for election in the Penrith and the Borders seat in

Peers nominated by Gordon Brown

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Sajid Javid

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Sajid Javid

Sajid Javid (born 5 December 1969) is a British politician who has served as the Member of Parliament (MP) for Bromsgrove since 2010. A member of the Conservative Party, he was Home Secretary from 2018 to 2019 and Chancellor of the Exchequer from 2019 to 2020. Javid was the first British Asian to hold one of the Great Offices of State in the UK. Born in Rochdale, Lancashire to a British Pakistani family, Javid was raised largely in Bristol. He studied Economics and Politics at the University of Exeter, where he joined the Conservative Party. Working in banking, he rose to become a Managing Director at Deutsche Bank. Switching to politics, he was elected to Parliament in 2010. Under the government of Conservative Prime Minister David Cameron he served as a Junior Treasury Minister before being promoted to Cameron's Cabinet as Culture Secretary and Business Secretary. He went on to serve under Prime Minister Theresa May as Communities Secretary and Home Secretary. After May's resignation, Javid stood for Lead

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Douglas Jay

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Douglas Jay

Douglas Patrick Thomas Jay, Baron Jay, PC (23 March 1907 – 6 March 1996) was a British Labour Party politician. Early life Educated at Winchester College[1] and New College, Oxford, Jay won the Chancellor's English Essay in 1927 and gained a First in Literae Humaniores ('Greats') in 1929.[2] He was a Fellow of All Souls 1930-37. His early career was as an economics journalist working for The Times (1929–33), The Economist (1933–37) and the Daily Herald (1937–41), then as a civil servant in the Ministry of Supply and the Board of Trade, from 1943 as personal assistant to Hugh Dalton. In The Socialist Case (1937) he wrote: "in the case of nutrition and health, just as in the case of education, the gentleman in Whitehall really does know better what is good for people than the people know themselves". This statement was mercilessly exploited by the Conservatives and won him long-lasting notoriety; it has often been paraphrased as "the man in Whitehall knows best". Parliamentary career Jay was elected member

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Peter Lilley

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Peter Lilley

Peter Bruce Lilley, Baron Lilley,[1] PC (born 23 August 1943) is a British Conservative politician who was a Member of Parliament (MP) from 1983 to 2017 representing the constituency of Hitchin and Harpenden from 1997 and, prior to boundary changes, St Albans. He was a Cabinet minister in the governments of Margaret Thatcher and John Major, serving as Trade and Industry Secretary from July 1990 to April 1992, and as Social Security Secretary from April 1992 to May 1997, when he introduced Incapacity Benefit. On 26 April 2017, he announced his retirement as an MP.[2] He has been a long term critic of the European Union and backed Brexit in the 2016 United Kingdom European Union membership referendum. Lilley has since been supportive of the Eurosceptic pressure group Leave Means Leave.[3] In May 2018, he was nominated for a peerage in the House of Lords.[4] Early life Lilley, whose father was a personnel officer for the BBC, was born at Hayes in Kent.[5] He was educated at Dulwich College and Clare College,

Peers nominated by Theresa May

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Alan Johnson

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Alan Johnson

Alan Arthur Johnson (born 17 May 1950) is a British Labour Party politician who served as Home Secretary from June 2009 to May 2010. Before that, he filled a wide variety of cabinet positions in both the Blair and Brown governments, including Education Secretary, Health Secretary and Home Secretary. Until 20 January 2011 he was Shadow Chancellor of the Exchequer. Johnson was the Member of Parliament for Hull West and Hessle from the 1997 general election. On 18 April 2017, following the announcement of the 2017 general election, Johnson said he would not be a candidate.[1] Early life Born in London on 17 May 1950, the son of Stephen and Lillian Johnson,[2] he was "orphaned" at the age of 13 when his mother died, his father having previously abandoned the family. Johnson was then in effect brought up by his older sister Linda when the two were assigned a council flat by their child welfare officer.[3][4][5] Linda, then herself only 16, has since been recognised as the hero of Johnson's poignant 2013 memoir T

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Ian Lang, Baron Lang of Monkton

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Ian Lang, Baron Lang of Monkton

Ian Bruce Lang, Baron Lang of Monkton, PC (born 27 June 1940) is a British Conservative politician and Life Peer who served as the Member of Parliament for Galloway, and then Galloway and Upper Nithsdale, from 1979 to 1997. On 29 September 1997 Lang was raised to the peerage. He has been an active member of the House of Lords and is currently the Chairman of the Constitution Committee, a post he took up in 2016, having previously served as Chair of the Advisory Committee on Business Appointments from 2009 to 2014.[1] Early life Lang was educated at Lathallan School, Rugby School and Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge (BA 1962), where he was also a member of the Cambridge Footlights.[2] Parliamentary career Lang first stood for Parliament for Central Ayrshire in 1970, but was unsuccessful. In the February 1974 general election he was defeated by Labour's James White contesting Glasgow Pollok. Following this he became MP for Galloway from 1979 to 1983 and for Galloway and Upper Nithsdale from 1983 to 1997 a

Peers nominated by John Major

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Peter Mandelson

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Peter Mandelson

Peter Benjamin Mandelson, Baron Mandelson, PC (born 21 October 1953) is a British Labour politician, president of international think tank Policy Network, and chairman of strategic advisory firm Global Counsel.[2] He served as Member of Parliament (MP) for Hartlepool from 1992 to 2004 and held a number of Cabinet positions under Prime Ministers Tony Blair and Gordon Brown.[3] He was the European Commissioner for Trade between 2004 and 2008. Mandelson was one of several key individuals responsible for the rebranding of the Labour Party as New Labour before its subsequent victory in the 1997 election.[4][5] He was twice forced to resign from the Cabinet before leaving Parliament to take up an appointment as a European Commissioner. He later rejoined the Cabinet for a third time after being created a Life Peer, sitting on the Labour benches in the House of Lords. He is the only person to hold the position of First Secretary of State as a Peer.[6] Early life Family Peter Mandelson was born in Hampstead Garden

Advocates of the European Union

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John Llewellin, 1st Baron Llewellin

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John Llewellin, 1st Baron Llewellin

Colonel John Jestyn Llewellin, 1st Baron Llewellin GBE MC TD PC (6 February 1893 – 24 January 1957) was a British army officer, Conservative Party politician and minister in Winston Churchill's war government. Background Llewellin was the son of William Llewellin, of Upton House, Dorset, and Frances Mary, daughter of L. D. Wigan. He was educated at Eton.[1] Military career Llewellin was commissioned into the Royal Garrison Artillery in 1914 and reached the rank of Major during the First World War, winning the Military Cross in 1917.[2] He remained in the Territorial Army after the war and was promoted to Lieutenant-Colonel commanding the Dorset Heavy Brigade in 1932. He was promoted Colonel in 1936 and retired in 1938. He was appointed an Officer of the Order of the British Empire (OBE) in 1926,[3] promoted to a Commander (CBE) in 1939,[4] and then was made a Knight Grand Cross (GBE) in 1953.[5] Political career Llewellin was elected Member of Parliament (MP) for Uxbridge in Middlesex in 1929. He held a

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1893 births

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David Lloyd George

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David Lloyd George

David Lloyd George, 1st Earl Lloyd-George of Dwyfor, OM, PC (17 January 1863 – 26 March 1945) was a British statesman who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom between 1916 and 1922. He was the final Liberal to hold the post. Lloyd George was born in Manchester to Welsh parents. His father—a schoolmaster—died in 1864 and he was raised in Wales by his mother and her shoemaker brother, whose Liberal politics and Baptist faith strongly influenced Lloyd George; the same uncle helped the boy embark on a career as a solicitor after leaving school. Lloyd George became active in local politics, gaining a reputation as an orator and a proponent of a Welsh blend of radical Liberalism which championed nonconformism and the disestablishment of the Anglican church in Wales, equality for labourers and tenant farmers, and reform of landownership. In 1890 he narrowly won a by-election to become the Member of Parliament for Caernarvon Boroughs, in which seat he remained for fifty-five years. Lloyd George served in H

Participants in the Norway Debate

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Roy Mason

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Roy Mason

Roy Mason, Baron Mason of Barnsley, PC, DL (18 April 1924 – 19 April 2015) was a British Labour politician and Cabinet minister who was Secretary of State for Defence and Secretary of State for Northern Ireland in the late 1970s. Early life He was born in Royston, West Riding of Yorkshire, on 18 April 1924,[1] and grew up in Carlton, Barnsley, also in the West Riding of Yorkshire. Mason first went down the mines at the age of fourteen and he became a branch official of the National Union of Mineworkers in his early twenties. Aged 26 he studied at the London School of Economics as a mature student on a Trades Union Congress scholarship.[2] He remained in the coal industry until he was elected as Member of Parliament (MP) for the Barnsley constituency at a by-election in 1953.[3] Posts Mason was Labour Party spokesman on Home Affairs, Defence and Post Office, 1960–1964. Minister of State at the Board of Trade, 1964–1967. Minister of Defence (Equipment), 1967–1968. Minister of Power, 1968–1969. President of

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Deputy Lieutenants of South Yorkshire

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Reginald Maudling

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Reginald Maudling

Reginald Maudling (7 March 1917 – 14 February 1979)[1] was a British politician who held several Cabinet posts, including Chancellor of the Exchequer. From 1955 until the late 1960s, he was spoken of as a prospective Conservative leader, and he was twice seriously considered for the post; he was Edward Heath's chief rival in 1965. He also held directorships in several British financial firms. As Home Secretary, he was responsible for the UK Government's Northern Ireland policy during the period that included Bloody Sunday in 1972. Soon afterwards, he left office due to an unrelated scandal in one of the companies of which he was director. Early life Reginald Maudling was born in Woodside Park, North Finchley, and was named after his father, Reginald George Maudling, an actuary at R. Watson & Sons and Public Valuer,[2] who contracted to do actuarial and financial calculations as the Commercial Calculating Company Ltd. The family moved to Bexhill to escape German air raids; Maudling won scholarships to

Alcohol-related deaths in England

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Deaths from kidney failure

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Michael Noble, Baron Glenkinglas

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Michael Noble, Baron Glenkinglas

Michael Antony Cristobal Noble, Baron Glenkinglas, PC (19 March 1913 – 15 May 1984) was a Scottish Tory politician. Noble was the youngest son of Sir John Noble, 1st Baronet, and the grandson of Sir Andrew Noble, 1st Baronet, and was educated at Eton College and Magdalen College, Oxford. A farmer, he was president of the Black Face Sheep Breeders' Association and the Highland Cattle Society. He was an Argyll County Councillor and a director of Associated Fisheries. From a by-election in June 1958 until his retirement in 1974 he was Member of Parliament for Argyll. Noble was a Scottish whip from 1960 and Lord Commissioner of the Treasury from 1961. He was Secretary of State for Scotland from 1962 to 1964 in the governments of Harold Macmillan and Alec Douglas-Home, taking over from John Maclay after the Night of the Long Knives. He returned to government as President of the Board of Trade in 1970 and as Minister for Trade from 1970 to 1972 under Edward Heath. As Scottish Secretary, he presided over the las

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Nicholas Ridley, Baron Ridley of Liddesdale

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Nicholas Ridley, Baron Ridley of Liddesdale

Nicholas Ridley, Baron Ridley of Liddesdale, PC (17 February 1929 – 4 March 1993) was a British Conservative politician and government minister. As President of the Selsdon Group, a free-market lobby within the Conservative Party, he was closely aligned with Margaret Thatcher, and became one of her Ministers of State at the Foreign and Commonwealth Office in 1979. Responsible for the Falkland Islands, he tried to resolve the long-running sovereignty issue with Argentina, which detected Britain's reluctance to defend the territory, and later invaded it. As Secretary of State for Transport, Ridley performed a key function in building up coal stocks in advance of the 1984–85 miners' strike, which helped the government to defeat the National Union of Mineworkers (NUM). As Secretary of State for the Environment, Ridley opposed a low-cost housing development near his own property, earning him the title of "NIMBY" ("Not in My Back Yard"). He was also responsible for introducing the "poll tax" (formally known as th

Lutyens family

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Cecil Parkinson

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Cecil Parkinson

Cecil Edward Parkinson, Baron Parkinson PC[1] (1 September 1931 – 22 January 2016) was a British Conservative politician and cabinet minister. A chartered accountant by training, he entered Parliament in November 1970, and was appointed a minister in Margaret Thatcher's first government in May 1979. He successfully managed the Conservative Party's 1983 election campaign, and was rewarded with an appointment as Secretary of State for Trade and Industry, but was forced to resign after revelations that his former secretary, Sara Keays, was pregnant with his child, whom she later bore and named Flora Keays.[2] Parkinson subsequently served as Secretary of State for Energy, and later Secretary of State for Transport. He resigned that office in 1990, on the same day that Thatcher resigned as Prime Minister. He was created Baron Parkinson in 1992, and served in the House of Lords until his retirement in September 2015.[3][4] Early life Cecil Parkinson was born at 4 Edward Street, Carnforth, Lancashire, the son o

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John Nott

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John Nott

Sir John William Frederic Nott KCB[1] (born 1 February 1932) is a former British Conservative Party politician prominent in the late 1970s and early 1980s. He featured heavily in the public eye as Secretary of State for Defence during the Argentine invasion of the Falkland Islands and the subsequent Falklands War. Early life Born in Bideford, Devon, the son of Richard Nott and Phyllis (née Francis), Nott was educated at Bradfield College and was commissioned as a regular officer in the 2nd Gurkha Rifles (1952–1956). He served in the Malayan emergency after a period of service with the Royal Scots. He left to study law and economics at Trinity College, Cambridge, where he was President of the Cambridge Union Society. He was called to the Bar at the Inner Temple in 1959. At Cambridge he met his future wife Miloska, a Slovene. Lady Nott was awarded an OBE in 2012 for her humanitarian work. They have two sons and a daughter. Member of Parliament Nott was Member of Parliament for St Ives in Cornwall from 1966

People from St Erth

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James Gascoyne-Cecil, 4th Marquess of Salisbury

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James Gascoyne-Cecil, 4th Marquess of Salisbury

Garter-encircled shield of arms of James Gascoyne-Cecil, 4th Marquess of Salisbury, KG, as displayed on his Order of the Garter stall plate in St. George's Chapel James Edward Hubert Gascoyne-Cecil, 4th Marquess of Salisbury, KG, GCVO, CB, PC (23 October 1861 – 4 April 1947), known as Viscount Cranborne from 1868 to 1903, was a British statesman. Background and education Born in London, Salisbury was the eldest son of Robert Gascoyne-Cecil, 3rd Marquess of Salisbury,[1] who served as British Prime Minister, by his wife Georgina (née Alderson). The Right Reverend Lord William Cecil, Lord Cecil of Chelwood and Lord Quickswood were his younger brothers, and Prime Minister Arthur Balfour his first cousin. He was educated at Eton and University College, Oxford, graduating BA in 1885. Political career He started public life early, being of a very young age when he accompanied his father to the 1876–1877 Constantinople Conference and a year later to the Congress of Berlin.[2] Lord Cranborne sat as Conservative

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Walter Runciman, 1st Viscount Runciman of Doxford

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Walter Runciman, 1st Viscount Runciman of Doxford

Walter Runciman, 1st Viscount Runciman of Doxford, PC (19 November 1870 – 14 November 1949) was a prominent Liberal and later National Liberal politician in the United Kingdom between the 1900s and 1930s. Background Runciman was the son of the shipping magnate Walter Runciman, 1st Baron Runciman. He was educated at South Shields High School and Trinity College, Cambridge, where he graduated with an MA degree in history in 1892.[1] Political career 1899–1913 Runciman unsuccessfully contested Gravesend in a by-election in 1898, but was elected as a member of parliament (MP) in a two-member by-election for Oldham in 1899,[2] defeating the Conservative candidates, James Mawdsley and Winston Churchill. After winning, Runciman is reported to have commented to Churchill: "Don't worry, I don't think this is the last the country has heard of either of us." The following year in the 1900 general election Churchill stood against Runciman again and defeated him.[2] Runciman soon returned to Parliament for Dewsbury i

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Philip Cunliffe-Lister, 1st Earl of Swinton

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Philip Cunliffe-Lister, 1st Earl of Swinton

Philip Cunliffe-Lister, 1st Earl of Swinton, GBE, CH, MC, PC (1 May 1884 – 27 July 1972), known as Philip Lloyd-Greame until 1924 and as The Viscount Swinton between 1935 and 1955, was a prominent British Conservative politician from the 1920s until the 1950s. Background and early life Beginning life as Philip Lloyd-Greame, he was the younger son of Lieutenant-Colonel Yarburgh George Lloyd-Greame (1840–1928) of Sewerby House, Bridlington, Yorkshire, by his wife Dora Letitia O'Brien, a daughter of the Right Reverend James Thomas O'Brien, Bishop of Ossory. His paternal grandfather was Yarburgh Gamaliel Lloyd, later Lloyd-Greame (1813–1890), who inherited Sewerby House by the will of his maternal uncle Yarburgh Greame, later Yarburgh (1782–1856). He was educated at Winchester College, an all-boys public school in Winchester. He studied law at University College, Oxford, graduating with a Bachelor of Arts (BA) degree in 1905. Then became an Honorary Fellow of his college and was admitted to the Inner Temple.

People from the Borough of Scarborough

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Norman Tebbit

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Norman Tebbit

Norman Beresford Tebbit, Baron Tebbit CH, PC (born 29 March 1931)[1] is a British politician and life peer. A member of the Conservative Party, he served in the Cabinet from 1981 to 1987 as Secretary of State for Employment (1981–83), Secretary of State for Trade and Industry (1983–85), Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster (1985–87) and Chairman of the Conservative Party (1985–87). He was a Member of Parliament (MP) from 1970 to 1992, representing the constituencies of Epping (1970–74) and Chingford (1974–92). In 1984, Tebbit was injured in the Provisional Irish Republican Army's bombing of the Grand Hotel in Brighton, where he was staying during the Conservative Party Conference. His wife Margaret was left permanently disabled after the explosion.[2] He left the cabinet after the 1987 general election to care for his wife.[3] He considered standing for the Conservative leadership after Margaret Thatcher's resignation in 1990, but came to the decision not to stand as he had earlier made a commitment to his w

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English agnostics

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Peter Thorneycroft

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Peter Thorneycroft

George Edward Peter Thorneycroft, Baron Thorneycroft, CH, PC (26 July 1909 – 4 June 1994) was a British Conservative Party politician. He served as Chancellor of the Exchequer between 1957 and 1958. Early life Born in Dunston, Staffordshire, Thorneycroft was the son of Major George Edward Mervyn Thorneycroft and Dorothy Hope Franklyn. He was the grandson of Sir William Franklyn and nephew of Sir Harold Franklyn.[1] He was educated at Eton and the Royal Military Academy, Woolwich. He was commissioned into the Royal Artillery as a second lieutenant on 29 August 1929 but resigned his commission on 1 July 1931.[2][3] In 1933, he was called to the bar for the Inner Temple. Political career He entered Parliament in the 1938 Stafford by-election, for the borough of Stafford. He was re-commissioned into the Royal Artillery in his previous rank on 30 August 1939.[4] During World War II, he served with the Royal Artillery and the general staff. Along with other members of the Tory Reform Committee, Thorneycroft pre

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Oliver Stanley

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Oliver Stanley

Oliver Frederick George Stanley, MP, PC, MC (4 May 1896 – 10 December 1950) was a prominent British Conservative politician who held many ministerial posts before his relatively early death. Background and education Stanley was the second son of Edward Stanley, 17th Earl of Derby, by his wife Lady Alice, daughter of William Montagu, 7th Duke of Manchester. Edward Stanley, Lord Stanley was his elder brother. He was educated at Eton, but did not proceed to the University of Oxford due to the outbreak of World War I.[1] Military career During the First World War, Stanley was commissioned into the Lancashire Hussars, before transferring to the Royal Field Artillery in 1915. He achieved the rank of captain, and won both the Military Cross and the Croix de Guerre.[1] Political career After he was demobilised, Stanley was called to the bar by Gray's Inn in 1919.[1] In the 1924 general election he was elected as Member of Parliament (MP) for Westmorland. From 1945 he sat for Bristol West. Ministerial career H

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John Smith (Labour Party leader)

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John Smith (Labour Party leader)

John Smith QC (13 September 1938 – 12 May 1994) was a British Labour politician who served as Leader of the Labour Party from July 1992 until his death from a heart attack in May 1994. Smith first entered Parliament in 1970 and, after junior ministerial roles as Minister of State for Energy (1975–1976) and Minister of State for the Privy Council Office (1976–1977), he entered the Cabinet at the end of James Callaghan's tenure as Prime Minister, serving as Secretary of State for Trade and President of the Board of Trade (1978–1979). During Labour's time in Opposition to Margaret Thatcher's Conservative government, he rose through the Shadow Cabinet, serving as Shadow Secretary of State for Trade (1979–1982), Shadow Secretary of State for Energy (1982–1983), Shadow Secretary of State for Employment (1983–1984), Shadow Secretary of State for Trade and Industry (1984–1987) and Shadow Chancellor of the Exchequer (1987–1992). After Labour leader Neil Kinnock resigned following the Party's surprise loss in the 199

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Hartley Shawcross

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Hartley Shawcross

Hartley William Shawcross, Baron Shawcross, GBE, PC, QC (4 February 1902 – 10 July 2003), known from 1945 to 1959 as Sir Hartley Shawcross, was a British barrister and Labour politician who served as the lead British prosecutor at the Nuremberg War Crimes tribunal. He also served as Britain's principal delegate to the United Nations immediately after World War II. Early life Hartley William Shawcross was born in Giessen, Germany, to British parents, John and Hilda Constance (Asser) Shawcross,[1] while his father was teaching English at Giessen University. He attended Dulwich College, the London School of Economics and the University of Geneva[2] and read for the Bar at Gray's Inn, where he won first-class honours. Career 1954 interview He joined the Labour Party at a young age and served as Member of Parliament for St Helens, Lancashire from 1945[3] to 1958, being appointed to be Attorney General in 1945[4] until 1951. It was in 1946 when debating the repeal of laws against trade unions in the House

Labour Party (UK) life peers

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Peter Shore

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Peter Shore

Peter David Shore, Baron Shore of Stepney, PC (20 May 1924 – 24 September 2001) was a British Labour politician and former Cabinet Minister, noted in part for his opposition to the United Kingdom's entry into the European Economic Community. His idiosyncratic left-wing nationalism led to comparison with the French politician Jean-Pierre Chevènement.[1] He was described in an obituary by the Conservative journalist Patrick Cosgrave as "Between Harold Wilson and Tony Blair, the only possible Labour Party leader of whom a Conservative leader had cause to walk in fear" and, along with Enoch Powell, "the most captivating rhetorician of the age".[2] Early life Born in Great Yarmouth, Norfolk, Shore was the son of a Merchant Navy captain and was brought up in a middle-class environment. He attended Quarry Bank High School in Liverpool and, from there, went to King's College, Cambridge, to read History as an exhibitioner, where he was a member of the Cambridge Apostles, a secret society with an elite membership.[2]

Chairs of the Fabian Society

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Peter Walker, Baron Walker of Worcester

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Peter Walker, Baron Walker of Worcester

Peter Edward Walker, Baron Walker of Worcester, MBE, PC (25 March 1932 – 23 June 2010) was a British Conservative politician who served in Cabinet under Edward Heath and Margaret Thatcher. He was Member of Parliament (MP) for Worcester from 1961 to 1992 and was made a life peer in 1992. Walker became the youngest National Chairman of the Young Conservatives in 1958.[1] He was a founder of the Tory Reform Group, and served as Chairman of the Carlton Club. Education Walker was educated at Latymer Upper School in London. He did not go to college or university. Parliamentary career Walker rose through the ranks of the Conservative Party's youth wing, the Young Conservatives. He was a branch chairman at the age of 14, and later National Chairman. He fought the Parliamentary seat of Dartford in the general elections of 1955 and 1959, being beaten each time by Labour's Sydney Irving. Walker was appointed to the Order of the British Empire as a Member (MBE) in the 1960 Birthday Honours for political services.[2

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David Young, Baron Young of Graffham

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David Young, Baron Young of Graffham

David Ivor Young, Baron Young of Graffham, CH, PC, DL (born 27 February 1932) is a British Conservative politician and businessman.[1] Early life Young is the elder son of a businessman who imported flour and later set up as a manufacturer of coats for children. He went to Christ's College in Finchley and then University College London, to take a law degree as an evening student during his time as an articled clerk to become a solicitor, being admitted to the roll of solicitors in 1955. Business career Having qualified as a solicitor, Young only practised for a year, after which he joined Great Universal Stores as an executive, working for part of that time as an assistant to the chairman, Sir Isaac Wolfson Bt. In 1961 he left GUS and set up his first business, Eldonwall Ltd. with funding from the Gestetner Family Settlements. During the sixties he built up a group of companies in industrial property, construction and plant hire, selling out in June 1970 to Town & City Properties PLC and joined the b

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Harold Wilson

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Harold Wilson

James Harold Wilson, Baron Wilson of Rievaulx, KG, OBE, PC, FRS, FSS (11 March 1916 – 24 May 1995), was a British Labour politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1964 to 1970 and 1974 to 1976. Entering Parliament in 1945, Wilson was appointed a parliamentary secretary in the Attlee ministry and rose quickly through the ministerial ranks; he became Secretary for Overseas Trade in 1947 and was elevated to Cabinet shortly thereafter as President of the Board of Trade. In opposition to the next Conservative government, he served as Shadow Chancellor (1955–1961) and Shadow Foreign Secretary (1961–1963). After Labour Party leader Hugh Gaitskell died suddenly in 1963, Wilson won the subsequent leadership election. After narrowly winning the 1964 general election, Wilson saw an increased majority in a snap election in 1966. Wilson's first period as Prime Minister coincided with a period of low unemployment and relative economic prosperity, though hindered by significant problems with Brita

Politicians awarded knighthoods

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Sidney Webb, 1st Baron Passfield

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Sidney Webb, 1st Baron Passfield

Sidney James Webb, 1st Baron Passfield, OM, PC (13 July 1859 – 13 October 1947) was a British socialist, economist, reformer and a co-founder of the London School of Economics. He was one of the early members of the Fabian Society in 1884, who like George Bernard Shaw joined three months after its inception. Along with his wife Beatrice Webb, Annie Besant, Graham Wallas, Edward R. Pease, Hubert Bland, and Sydney Olivier, Shaw and Webb turned the Fabian Society into the pre-eminent political-intellectual society in Edwardian England. He wrote the original, pro-nationalisation Clause IV for the British Labour Party. Background and education Webb was born in London to a professional family. He studied law at the Birkbeck Literary and Scientific Institution for a degree of the University of London in his spare time, while holding down an office job. He also studied at King's College London, prior to being called to the Bar in 1885. Professional life In 1895, he helped to establish the London School of Economi

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James Bryce, 1st Viscount Bryce

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James Bryce, 1st Viscount Bryce

James Bryce, 1st Viscount Bryce, OM, GCVO, PC, FRS, FBA (10 May 1838 – 22 January 1922) was a British academic, jurist, historian and Liberal politician.[1] Background and education Bryce was born in Arthur Street in Belfast, County Antrim, in Ulster, Ireland, the son of Margaret, daughter of James Young of Whiteabbey, and James Bryce, LLD, from near Coleraine, County Londonderry. The first eight years of his life were spent residing at his grandfather's Whiteabbey residence, often playing for hours on the tranquil picturesque shoreline. John Annan Bryce was his younger brother.[2] He was educated under his uncle Reuben John Bryce at the Belfast Academy,[3] Glasgow High School, the University of Glasgow, the University of Heidelberg and Trinity College, Oxford. He was elected a fellow of Oriel College, Oxford, in 1862 and was called to the Bar, Lincoln's Inn, in 1867.[2] His days as a student at the University of Heidelberg gave him a long-life admiration of German historical and legal scholarship. He beca

Politicians awarded knighthoods

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Edward Stanhope

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Edward Stanhope

Edward Stanhope PC(24 September 1840 – 21 December 1893) was a British Conservative Party politician who was Secretary of State for War from 1887 to 1892. Background and education Born in London, Stanhope was the second son of Philip Stanhope, 5th Earl Stanhope, by his wife Emily Harriet, daughter of General Sir Edward Kerrison, 1st Baronet. Arthur Stanhope, 6th Earl Stanhope was his elder brother and Philip Stanhope, 1st Baron Weardale his younger brother. He was educated at Harrow and Christ Church, Oxford. Stanhope studied law, being called to the bar at the Inner Temple in 1865. In 1861 he played three first-class cricket matches for Kent. Political career Caricature by Spy published in Vanity Fair in 1879. In 1874 Stanhope was elected to the House of Commons for Mid Lincolnshire, a seat he held until 1885, and then represented Horncastle until his death. He soon rose to a position of prominence within the party. In 1875, he became Parliamentary Secretary to the Board of Trade, and in 1878 moved up

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A. J. Mundella

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A. J. Mundella

Anthony John Mundella PC (28 March 1825 – 21 July 1897), known as A. J. Mundella, was an English manufacturer, reformer and Liberal Party politician who sat in the House of Commons from 1868 to 1897. He served under William Ewart Gladstone as President of the Board of Trade in 1886 and from 1892 to 1894. [1] He fought for the reduction of working hours and the raising of minimum ages in the employment of children and young persons. He established universal compulsory education and played the major part in building the British state education system. He was also the leading proponent in establishing arbitration and conciliation as a means to realising industrial peace between workers and employers. Early life Mundella was born in Leicester, England, the first of five children of Antonio Mondelli (later known as Anthony Mundella), a refugee from Lombardy of uncertain background, and his wife Rebecca Allsopp of Leicester.[2] At the time of Mundella's birth, his father was a poorly paid trimmer in the hosiery t

Politicians from Leicester

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Charles Gordon-Lennox, 6th Duke of Richmond

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Charles Gordon-Lennox, 6th Duke of Richmond

Charles Henry Gordon-Lennox, 6th Duke of Richmond, 6th Duke of Lennox, and 1st Duke of Gordon, KG, PC (27 February 1818 – 27 September 1903), styled Lord Settrington until 1819 and Earl of March between 1819 and 1860, was a British Conservative politician. Background and education Born at Richmond House, London, he was the son of Charles Lennox, 5th Duke of Richmond and Lennox and Lady Caroline, daughter of Field Marshal Henry Paget, 1st Marquess of Anglesey. He was educated at Westminster and Christ Church, Oxford, where he had a short career as a cricketer. He served in the Royal Horse Guards and was aide-de-camp to the Duke of Wellington. Political career March entered politics as member for Sussex West in 1841. He was sworn of the Privy Council in 1859. In 1860, he succeeded his father as Duke of Richmond and entered the House of Lords. He chaired the Royal Commission on Capital Punishment, which reported in 1866, and the Royal Commission on Water Supply in 1869, which concluded that there was a need

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Michael Hicks Beach, 1st Earl St Aldwyn

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Michael Hicks Beach, 1st Earl St Aldwyn

Michael Edward Hicks Beach, 1st Earl St Aldwyn, PC, DL (23 October 1837 – 30 April 1916), known as Sir Michael Hicks Beach, Bt, from 1854 to 1906 and subsequently as The Viscount St Aldwyn to 1915, was a British Conservative politician. Known as "Black Michael", he notably served as Chancellor of the Exchequer from 1885 to 1886 and again from 1895 to 1902 and also led the Conservative Party in the House of Commons from 1885 to 1886. Due to the length of his service, he was Father of the House from 1901 to 1906, when he took his peerage. Background and education Born at Portugal Street in London, Hicks Beach was the son of Sir Michael Hicks Beach, 8th Baronet, of Beverston, and his wife Harriett Vittoria, second daughter of John Stratton.[1] He was educated at Eton College and Christ Church, Oxford, where he graduated with a first class degree in the School of Law and Modern History in 1858. In 1854 he succeeded his father as ninth Baronet.[1] Political career, 1864–1888 In 1864 he was returned to Parliame

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Joseph Chamberlain

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Joseph Chamberlain

Joseph Chamberlain (8 July 1836 – 2 July 1914) was a British statesman who was first a radical Liberal, then, after opposing home rule for Ireland, a Liberal Unionist, and eventually served as a leading imperialist in coalition with the Conservatives. He split both major British parties in the course of his career. Chamberlain made his career in Birmingham, first as a manufacturer of screws and then as a notable mayor of the city. He was a radical Liberal Party member and an opponent of the Elementary Education Act 1870 on the basis that it could result in subsidising Church of England schools with local ratepayers' money.[1] As a self-made businessman, he had never attended university and had contempt for the aristocracy. He entered the House of Commons at 39 years of age, relatively late in life compared to politicians from more privileged backgrounds. Rising to power through his influence with the Liberal grassroots organisation, he served as President of the Board of Trade in Gladstone's Second Governmen

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Charles Ritchie, 1st Baron Ritchie of Dundee

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Charles Ritchie, 1st Baron Ritchie of Dundee

Charles Thomson Ritchie, 1st Baron Ritchie of Dundee PC (19 November 1838 – 9 January 1906) was a British businessman and Conservative politician who sat in the House of Commons from 1874 until 1905 when he was raised to the peerage. He served as Home Secretary from 1900 to 1902 and as Chancellor of the Exchequer from 1902 to 1903. Background and education Ritchie was born at Dundee, Scotland, the third son of William Ritchie, of Rockhill near Broughty Ferry in Forfarshire, head of the firm of William Ritchie & Sons, of London and Dundee, East India merchants, jute spinners and manufacturers. The Ritchie family had long been connected with the town of Dundee. His elder brother James Thomson Ritchie was Lord Mayor of London from 1903 to 1904 and was created a Baronet in 1903 (a title which became extinct on his death. Ritchie was educated at the City of London School, after which he went into the family business. He married Margaret Ower, daughter of Thomas Ower of Perth, on 7 December 1858. Political

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Frederick Stanley, 16th Earl of Derby

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Frederick Stanley, 16th Earl of Derby

Frederick Arthur Stanley, 16th Earl of Derby, KG, GCB, GCVO, PC (15 January 1841 – 14 June 1908) styled as Hon. Frederick Stanley from 1844–86 and as Lord Stanley of Preston between 1886–93, was a Conservative Party politician in the United Kingdom who served as Colonial Secretary from 1885 to 1886 and the sixth Governor General of Canada from 1888 to 1893. An avid sportsman, he built Stanley House Stables in England and is famous in North America for presenting Canada with the Stanley Cup. Stanley was also one of the original inductees of the Hockey Hall of Fame. Background and education Derby was the second son of Prime Minister Edward Smith-Stanley, 14th Earl of Derby, and the Hon. Emma Caroline, daughter of Edward Bootle-Wilbraham, 1st Baron Skelmersdale. He was born in London and was educated at Eton and Sandhurst. He received a commission in the Grenadier Guards, rising to the rank of Captain.[1] Political career Derby left the army for politics, serving as a Conservative Member of Parliament (for P

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Dudley Ryder, 3rd Earl of Harrowby

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Dudley Ryder, 3rd Earl of Harrowby

Dudley Francis Stuart Ryder, 3rd Earl of Harrowby, PC, JP, DL (16 January 1831 – 26 March 1900), known as Viscount Sandon from 1847 to 1882, was a British peer and politician. Life He was the second son and eventual heir of Dudley Ryder, 2nd Earl of Harrowby, and Lady Frances Stuart, fourth daughter of John Stuart, 1st Marquess of Bute. He was born at Brighton on 16 January 1831. He was educated at Harrow and the university of Oxford, where he matriculated from Christ Church on 31 May 1849, graduated B.A. in 1853, and proceeded M.A. in 1878.[1] On leaving the university, Viscount Sandon, as he was styled during his father's lifetime, made a tour in the East with Henry Herbert, 4th Earl of Carnarvon, visiting Syria and the Lebanon (see Carnavon's Recollections of the Druses of the Lebanon, London, 1860, 8vo). On his return to England, he did garrison duty as captain in the 2nd Staffordshire militia regiment, during the Crimean war and Indian mutiny.[1] Political career The Earl of Harrowby caricatured b

Presidents of the Board of Trade

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Deputy Lieutenants of Staffordshire

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English justices of the peace

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