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Philippines

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Philippines

The Philippines ( (listen) FIL-ə-peenz; Filipino: Pilipinas or Filipinas ), officially the Republic of the Philippines (Filipino: Republika ng Pilipinas),[a] is an archipelagic country in Southeast Asia. Situated in the western Pacific Ocean, it consists of about 7,641 islands[22] that are broadly categorized under three main geographical divisions from north to south: Luzon, Visayas and Mindanao. The capital city of the Philippines is Manila and the most populous city is Quezon City, both part of Metro Manila.[23] Bounded by the South China Sea on the west, the Philippine Sea on the east and the Celebes Sea on the southwest, the Philippines shares maritime borders with Taiwan to the north, Japan to the northeast, Vietnam to the west, Palau to the east, and Malaysia and Indonesia to the south. The Philippines' location on the Pacific Ring of Fire and close to the equator makes the Philippines prone to earthquakes and typhoons, but also endows it with abundant natural resources and some of the world's greate

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Phosphaphenalene

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Phosphaphenalene

Some isomeric phosphaphenalenes 1-PhosphaphenaleneCAS RN 1585965-09-8 1H-2-phosphaphenaleneCAS RN: 87954-77-6 9b-PhosphaphenaleneCAS RN: 25043-12-3 Phosphaphenalenes are a class of heterocyclic aromatic compounds containing phosphorus with molecular formula CHP, related to the phenalene polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, CH.[1] Phosphaphenalene can exist in a number of isomers depending on where in the ring system the phosphorus atom is placed. The phosphorus atom in these molecules has unusual properties, in particular changing its affinity as an electron acceptor when exposed to certain wavelengths of light. This makes phosphaphenalenes useful in optoelectronic applications such as temperature-dependent luminescence and electrochromism (reversibly changes colour when electricity is applied).[2][3] References Trujillo, Cristina; Sánchez-Sanz, Goar; Alkorta, Ibon; Elguero, José (2017). "An insight on the aromatic changes in closed shell icosagen, tetrel, and pnictogen phenalenyl derivatives

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Phosphorus heterocycles

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Pinyin

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Pinyin

Hanyu Pinyin (simplified Chinese: 汉语拼音; traditional Chinese: 漢語拼音; pinyin: Hànyǔ Pīnyīn), often abbreviated to pinyin, is the official romanization system for Standard Chinese in mainland China and to some extent in Taiwan. It is often used to teach Standard Mandarin Chinese, which is normally written using Chinese characters. The system includes four diacritics denoting tones. Pinyin without tone marks is used to spell Chinese names and words in languages written with the Latin alphabet and also in certain computer input methods to enter Chinese characters. The pinyin system was developed in the 1950s by many linguists, including Zhou Youguang,[1] based on earlier forms of romanizations of Chinese. It was published by the Chinese government in 1958 and revised several times.[2] The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) adopted pinyin as an international standard in 1982,[3] and was followed by the United Nations in 1986.[1] The system was adopted as the official standard in Taiwan in 2009, wh

International Phonetic Alphabet pages needing a...

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ISO romanization

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Palo Duro Canyon paintings of O'Keeffe

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Palo Duro Canyon paintings of O'Keeffe

Red Landscape, oil on board, 1916–1917, Panhandle–Plains Historical Museum, West Texas A&M University No. 20 Special, oil on board, 17 3⁄ in × 13 1⁄ in (44 cm × 34 cm), 1916–1917, Milwaukee Art Museum No. 22 - Special, oil on board, 1916–1917, Georgia O'Keeffe Museum Canyon with Crows, watercolor and graphite on paper, 8 3⁄ in × 12 in (22 cm × 30 cm), 1917, Georgia O'Keeffe Museum Georgia O'Keeffe made a set of paintings of Palo Duro Canyon while working as a department head and art instructor at West Texas State Normal College. The vibrant paintings reflect her development as an Abstract Expressionist, influenced by Arthur Wesley Dow. Background While working at West Texas State Normal College between 1916 and 1918, O'Keeffe lived in Canyon, Texas and often visited Palo Duro Canyon, which became a source of inspiration for her paintings that helped her develop as an abstract artist.[1] She made 51 watercolors while living in Canyon. Carolyn Kastner, curator of "Georgia O'Keeffe’s Far

Watercolor paintings

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1910s paintings

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Ploceidae

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Ploceidae

Ploceidae is a family of small passerine birds, many of which are called weavers, weaverbirds, weaver finches and bishops. These names come from the nests of intricately woven vegetation created by birds in this family. In most recent classifications, Ploceidae is a clade, which excludes some birds that have historically been placed in the family, such as some of the sparrows, but which includes the monotypic subfamily Amblyospizinae. The family is believed to have originated in the mid-Miocene.[1] All birds of the Ploceidae are native to the Old World, most in Africa south of the Sahara, though a few live in tropical areas of Asia. A few species have been introduced outside their native range.[2] Taxonomy and systematics The family Ploceidae was introduced (as Ploceïdes) by the Swedish zoologist Carl Jakob Sundevall in 1836.[3][4] These species are not closely related to the sparrows (Passeridae) nor to the Emberizidae, according to Luis Allende and colleagues.[5][6] The family is divided into the buffalo,

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Ploceidae

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Bird families

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Pan-Germanism

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Pan-Germanism

A historical map of Europe showing an approximation of the 1937 ethnic situation in Central Europe. Pan-Germanism (German: Pangermanismus or Alldeutsche Bewegung), also occasionally known as Pan-Germanicism, is a pan-nationalist political idea. Pan-Germanists originally sought to unify all the German and possibly also Germanic-speaking peoples in a single nation-state known as Großdeutschland. Pan-Germanism was highly influential in German politics in the 19th century during the unification of Germany when the German Empire was proclaimed as a nation-state in 1871 but without Austria (Kleindeutsche Lösung/Lesser Germany),[1] and the first half of the 20th century in the Austro-Hungarian Empire and the German Empire. From the late 19th century, many Pan-Germanist thinkers, since 1891 organized in the Pan-German League, had adopted openly ethnocentric and racist ideologies, and ultimately gave rise to the foreign policy Heim ins Reich pursued by Nazi Germany under Austrian-born Adolf Hitler from 1938, one of

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Modern history of Germany

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Irredentism

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Ploceus

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Ploceus

Plumage patterns of breeding males in Ploceus and related genera – often combinations of yellow and black Ploceinae, 1st group Black-breasted weaver "true Ploceus" Madagascar fody(genus Foudia) Red-billed quelea(genus Quelea) Southern red bishop(genus Euplectes) Ploceinae, 2nd group Nelicourvi weaver(genus Ploceus)"reinstated Nelicurvius" Cassin's malimbe(genus Malimbus)"extended Malimbus" Red-headed weaver(genus Anaplectes)"extended Malimbus" Southern masked weaver(genus Ploceus)"extended Malimbus" Ploceus is a genus of birds in the weaver family, Ploceidae. They are native to the Indomalayan and Afrotropical realms. Taxonomy and systematics Phylogeny The genus Ploceus was introduced by the French naturalist Georges Cuvier in 1816.[1] The type species was subsequently designated as the baya weaver.[2] The genus name is from Ancient Greek πλοκευς plokeus meaning "weaver", and is derived from the Greek word πλεκω plekō "to entwine".[3] Based on recent DNA-analy

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Ploceus

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Ploceidae

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Party leaders of the United States Senate

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Party leaders of the United States Senate

Current leaders Majority LeaderMitch McConnell (R) Majority WhipJohn Thune (R) Minority LeaderChuck Schumer (D) Minority WhipDick Durbin (D) Party leaders of the U.S. Senate The Senate Majority and Minority Leaders are two United States senators and members of the party leadership of the United States Senate. These leaders serve as the chief Senate spokespeople for the political parties respectively holding the majority and the minority in the United States Senate, and manage and schedule the legislative and executive business of the Senate. They are elected to their positions in the Senate by the party caucuses: the Senate Democratic Caucus and the Senate Republican Conference. By rule, the Presiding Officer gives the Majority Leader priority in obtaining recognition to speak on the floor of the Senate. The Majority Leader customarily serves as the chief representative of their party in the Senate, and sometimes even in all of Congress if the House of Representatives and thus the office of

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Political whips

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Lists of United States Senators

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Pokémon Go

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Pokémon Go

Pokémon Go is an augmented reality (AR) mobile game developed and published by Niantic for iOS and Android devices. A part of the Pokémon franchise, it was first released in certain countries in July 2016, and in other regions over the next few months. The game is the result of a collaboration between Niantic, Nintendo and The Pokémon Company. It uses the mobile device GPS to locate, capture, battle, and train virtual creatures, called Pokémon, which appear as if they are in the player's real-world location. The game is free to play; it uses a freemium business model and supports in-app purchases for additional in-game items. The game launched with around 150 species of Pokémon, which had increased to around 500 by 2019. Pokémon Go was released to mixed reviews; critics praised the concept, but criticized technical problems. It was one of the most used and profitable mobile apps in 2016, having been downloaded more than 500 million times worldwide by the end of the year. It is credited with popularizing loca

Video games featuring protagonists of selectabl...

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Niantic, Inc. games

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YouTube videos

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Pashtuns

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Pashtuns

The Pashtuns (, or ; Pashto: پښتانه‎, Pax̌tānə; also Pukhtuns), historically known as ethnic Afghans[a] or Pathans,[b] are an Iranic-speaking ethnic group[21] native to South Asia, who share a common history and culture. They primarily live in Afghanistan and Pakistan. A substantial majority of ethnic Pashtuns share Pashto—an Eastern Iranic language in the Indo-European language family—as the native language.[22] Pashtun men from southern Afghanistan Globally, the Pashtuns are estimated to number around 50 million,[23] but an accurate count remains elusive due to the lack of an official census in Afghanistan since 1979. The majority of the Pashtuns live in the region regarded as Pashtunistan, which has been split between two countries since the Durand Line border was formed after the Second Anglo-Afghan War.[24] The Pashtuns are a significant minority group in Pakistan, where they constitute the second-largest ethnic group or about 15 percent of the population. Smaller, but still significant Pashtun diasp

Pashtun people

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Ethnic groups in South Asia

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Iranian ethnic groups

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Pawn (chess)

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Pawn (chess)

White pawn Black pawn The pawn (♙,♟) is the most numerous piece in the game of chess, and in most circumstances, also the weakest. It historically represents infantry, or more particularly, armed peasants or pikemen.[1] Each player begins a game with eight pawns, one on each square of the rank immediately in front of the other pieces. (The white pawns start on a2, b2, c2, d2, e2, f2, g2, h2; the black pawns start on a7, b7, c7, d7, e7, f7, g7, h7.) Individual pawns are referred to by the file on which they stand. For example, one speaks of "White's f-pawn" or "Black's b-pawn". Alternatively, they can be referred to by the piece which stood on that file at the beginning of the game, e.g. "White's king bishop's pawn" or "Black's queen knight's pawn". It is also common to refer to a rook's pawn, meaning any pawn on the a- or h-files, a knight's pawn (on the b- or g-files), a bishop's pawn (on the c- or f-files), a queen's pawn (on the d-file), a king's pawn (on the e-file), and a central pawn (on the d- or

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Chess pieces

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Peñarol

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Peñarol

Club Atlético Peñarol (Spanish pronunciation:  (listen); English: Peñarol Athletic Club) —also known as Carboneros, Aurinegros and (familiarly) Manyas— is a Uruguayan sports club from Montevideo. The name "Peñarol" comes from the Peñarol neighbourhood on the outskirts of Montevideo.[2] Throughout its history the club has also participated in other sports, such as basketball[3] and cycling.[4] Its focus has always been on football, a sport in which the club excels,[5] having never been relegated from the top division. In international competition, Peñarol is the third-highest Copa Libertadores winner with five victories[6] and shares the record for Intercontinental Cup victories with three.[7] In September 2009, the club was chosen as the South American Club of the Century by the IFFHS .[5] Apart from football, other active sports sections of Peñarol are futsal, women's football and athletics.[8] History Origins On September 28, 1891, employees of the Central Uruguay Railway Company established the Central

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Started in 1891 in Uruguay

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Pennsylvania

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Pennsylvania

Interactive map of Pennsylvania Pennsylvania ( (listen) PEN-səl-VAY-nee-ə), officially the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, is a state located in the Northeastern, Great Lakes, and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States. The Appalachian Mountains run through its middle. The Commonwealth is bordered by Delaware to the southeast, Maryland to the south, West Virginia to the southwest, Ohio to the west, Lake Erie and the Canadian province of Ontario to the northwest, New York to the north, and New Jersey to the east. Pennsylvania is the 33rd-largest state by area, and the 5th-most populous state according to the most recent official U.S. Census count in 2010. It is the 9th-most densely populated of the 50 states. Pennsylvania's two most populous cities are Philadelphia (1,580,863), and Pittsburgh (302,407). The state capital and its 10th-largest city is Harrisburg. Pennsylvania has 140 miles (225 km) of waterfront along Lake Erie and the Delaware Estuary.[7] The state is one of the 13 original founding states

Landlocked U.S. states

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Mid-Atlantic states

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Pharaoh

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Pharaoh

pr-ˤ3"Great house"in hieroglyphs nswt-bjt"King of Upper and Lower Egypt"in hieroglyphs Pharaoh (, US also ;[1] Coptic: ⲡⲣ̅ⲣⲟ Pǝrro) is the common title of the monarchs of ancient Egypt from the First Dynasty (c. 3150 BCE) until the annexation of Egypt by the Roman Empire in 30 BCE,[2] although the actual term "Pharaoh" was not used contemporaneously for a ruler until Merneptah, c. 1200 BCE. In the early dynasty, ancient Egyptian kings used to have up to three titles, the Horus, the Sedge and Bee (nswt-bjtj) name, and the Two Ladies (nbtj) name. The Golden Horus and nomen and prenomen titles were later added. In Egyptian society, religion was central to everyday life. One of the roles of the pharaoh was as an intermediary between the gods and the people. The pharaoh thus deputised for the gods; his role was both as civil and religious administrator. He owned all of the land in Egypt, enacted laws, collected taxes, and defended Egypt from invaders as the comman

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Torah monarchs

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Ancient Egyptian titles

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Pontic Greeks

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Pontic Greeks

The Pontic Greeks, also known as Pontian Greeks (Greek: Πόντιοι, Ελληνοπόντιοι, Póntioi, Ellinopóntioi; Turkish: Pontus Rumları, Karadeniz Rumları, Georgian: პონტოელი ბერძნები, P’ont’oeli Berdznebi), are an ethnically Greek[3][4] group who traditionally lived in the region of Pontus, on the shores of the Black Sea and in the Pontic Mountains of northeastern Anatolia. Many later migrated to other parts of Eastern Anatolia, to the former Russian province of Kars Oblast in the Transcaucasus, and to Georgia in various waves between the Ottoman conquest of the Empire of Trebizond in 1461 and the second Russo-Turkish War of 1828–29. Those from southern Russia, Ukraine, and Crimea are often referred to as "Northern Pontic [Greeks]", in contrast to those from "South Pontus", which strictly speaking is Pontus proper. Those from Georgia, northeastern Anatolia, and the former Russian Caucasus are in contemporary Greek academic circles often referred to as "Eastern Pontic [Greeks]" or as Caucasian Greeks, but also includ

Sub-ethnic groups

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Ancient peoples of Anatolia

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Punisher in film

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Punisher in film

The character of Frank Castle as portrayed by three actors in film (L-R): Dolph Lundgren in The Punisher (1989); Thomas Jane in The Punisher (2004); and Ray Stevenson in Punisher: War Zone. The fictional character of Frank Castle, also known as the Punisher, a comic book vigilante featured in Marvel Comics publications, has appeared in several films, many of them unrelated to each other. The first live-action film in 1989, was released theatrically worldwide then straight to video in the U.S., and starred Dolph Lundgren. The second film was released in theaters and starred Thomas Jane. After an unsuccessful script of Punisher 2, the film series was then rebooted again in 2008 with the film Punisher: War Zone starring Ray Stevenson. Besides the three live action films, the character was also the subject of two fan films and has appeared in several animated films. Development The first film, known simply as The Punisher is a film that was released straight to video by New World Pictures in 1989 that is most

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American crime drama films

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Punisher

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Romanian War of Independence

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Romanian War of Independence

The Romanian War of Independence is the name used in Romanian historiography to refer to the Russo-Turkish War (1877–78), following which Romania, fighting on the Russian side, gained independence from the Ottoman Empire. On April 16 [O.S. April 4] 1877, Romania and the Russian Empire signed a treaty at Bucharest under which Russian troops were allowed to pass through Romanian territory, with the condition that Russia respected the integrity of Romania. Consequently, the mobilization of the Romanian troops also began, and about 120,000 soldiers were massed in the south of the country to defend against an eventual attack of the Ottoman forces from south of the Danube. On April 24 [O.S. April 12] 1877, Russia declared war on the Ottoman Empire and its troops entered Romania through the newly built Eiffel Bridge, on their way to the Ottoman Empire. Due to great losses, the Russian Empire asked Romania to intervene. On July 24 [O.S. July 12] 1877, the first Romanian Army units crossed the Danube and join forces w

1877 in the Ottoman Empire

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1878 in the Ottoman Empire

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Poppy-seed bagel theorem

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Poppy-seed bagel theorem

In physics, the poppy-seed bagel theorem concerns interacting particles (e.g., electrons) confined to a bounded surface (or body) A {\displaystyle A} when the particles repel each other pairwise with a magnitude that is proportional to the inverse distance between them raised to some positive power s {\displaystyle s} . In particular, this includes the Coulomb law observed in Electrostatics and Riesz potentials extensively studied in Potential theory. For N {\displaystyle N} such particles, an equilibrium (stable) state, which depends on the parameter s {\displaystyle s} , is attained when the associated energy of the system is minimal (the so-called generalized Thomson problem). For large numbers of points, these equilibrium configurations provide a discretization of A {\displaystyle A} which may or may not be nearly uniform with respect to the surface area (or volume) of A {\displaystyle A} . The Poppy-seed bagel theorem asserts that for a large class of sets A {

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Physics theorems

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Queen (chess)

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Queen (chess)

White queen Black queen The queen (♕, ♛) is the most powerful piece in the game of chess, able to move any number of squares vertically, horizontally or diagonally. Each player starts the game with one queen, placed in the middle of the first rank next to the king. Because the queen is the strongest piece, a pawn is promoted to a queen in the vast majority of cases. In the game shatranj, the ancestor of chess that included only male figures, the closest thing to the queen was the ferz, a weak piece only able to move or capture one step diagonally and not at all in any other direction. The modern chess queen gained power in the 15th century. Nomenclature In most languages the piece is known as "queen" or "lady" (e.g. Italian donna). Asian and Eastern European languages tend to refer to it as vizier, minister or advisor (e.g. Arabic/Persian وزیر wazir, Russian ферзь ferz). In Polish it is known as the hetman – the name of a major historical military-political office, while in Estonian it is called li

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Chess pieces

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Rook (chess)

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Rook (chess)

White rook Black rook The rook (♖,♜) is a piece in the game of chess. Formerly the piece (from Persian رخ rokh/rukh) was called the tower, marquess, rector, and comes (Sunnucks 1970). The term castle is considered informal, incorrect, or old-fashioned.[1][2] Each player starts the game with two rooks, one on each of the corner squares on their own side of the board. Placement and movement The white rooks start on squares a1 and h1, while the black rooks start on a8 and h8. The rook moves horizontally or vertically, through any number of unoccupied squares (see diagram). As with captures by other pieces, the rook captures by occupying the square on which the enemy piece sits. The rook also participates, with the king, in a special move called castling. a b c d e f g h 8 8 7 7 6 6 5 5 4 4 3 3 2 2 1 1 a b c d e f g h Starting positions of the rooks a b c d e f g h 8 8 7 7 6 6 5 5 4 4 3 3 2 2 1 1 a b c d e f g h

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Chess pieces

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Popular Mobilization Forces

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Popular Mobilization Forces

The Popular Mobilization Forces (PMF), also known as the People's Mobilization Committee (PMC) and the Popular Mobilization Units (PMU) (Arabic: الحشد الشعبي‎ al-Ḥashd ash-Shaʿbī),[20] is an Iraqi state-sponsored umbrella organization composed of some 40 militias that are mostly Shia Muslim groups, but also including Sunni Muslim, Christian, and Yazidi individuals as well.[21][22] The popular mobilization units have fought in nearly every major battle against ISIL.[23] It has been called the new Iraqi Republican Guard after it was fully reorganized in early 2018 by its then-Commander in Chief Haider al-Abadi. Former Iraqi Prime Minister Haider al-Abadi issued "regulations to adapt the situation of the Popular Mobilization fighters," giving them ranks and salaries equivalent to other branches of the Iraqi military.[3] Logos and flags Flags and Logos of PMF The flag of Iraq is also used by PMF[24] Also, the factions had its own flags. Name With regard to the official native name, the Arabic word

Iraqi nationalism

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Axis of Resistance

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Islamism in Iraq

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Queens Hospital Center

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Queens Hospital Center

Queens Hospital Center (QHC), also known as NYC Health + Hospitals/Queens[2] and originally called Queens General Hospital, is a large public hospital campus in the Hillcrest neighborhood of Queens in New York City. It is operated by NYC Health + Hospitals, a public benefit corporation of the city. Queens General Hospital opened in 1935 as the first municipal general hospital in the borough. It would absorb the adjacent Queensboro Hospital for Communicable Diseases shortly after opening, and the campus would later include Triboro Hospital for Tuberculosis, which opened in 1941. Queens Hospital Center was formed in 1952 and 1959 with the official merger of the three hospitals along with two other Queens medical facilities.[3][4][5][6] The current campus consists of modern buildings constructed in the 21st century, along with the former Triboro Hospital building. Campus Building T, the former Triboro Hospital, at Parsons Boulevard and 82nd Drive. Queens Hospital Center is located on a 22-acre (8.9 ha) cam

Art Deco architecture in Queens, New York

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Hospitals in Queens, New York

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Rotating locomotion in living systems

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Rotating locomotion in living systems

A toy animal with wheels, from Pre-Columbian Mexico[1] Several organisms are capable of rolling locomotion. However, true wheels and propellers—despite their utility in human vehicles—do not appear to play a significant role in the movement of living things (with the exception of certain flagella, which function like corkscrews). Biologists have expounded on the reasons for this apparent absence of biological wheels, and wheeled creatures have appeared often in speculative fiction. Given the ubiquity of the wheel in human technology, and the existence of biological analogues of many other technologies (such as wings and lenses), the lack of wheels in the natural world would seem to demand explanation—and the phenomenon is broadly explained by two main factors. First, there are several developmental and evolutionary obstacles to the advent of a wheel by natural selection, addressing the question "Why can't life evolve wheels?" Secondly, wheels are often at a competitive disadvantage when compared with other

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Speculative evolution

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Portrait of Adele Bloch-Bauer I

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Portrait of Adele Bloch-Bauer I

Portrait of Adele Bloch-Bauer I, Gustav Klimt, 1907. 140 cm × 140 cm (55 in × 55 in), Neue Galerie, New York Portrait of Adele Bloch-Bauer I (also called The Lady in Gold or The Woman in Gold) is a painting by Gustav Klimt, completed between 1903 and 1907. The portrait was commissioned by the sitter's husband, Ferdinand Bloch-Bauer, a Jewish banker and sugar producer. The painting was stolen by the Nazis in 1941 and displayed at the Österreichische Galerie Belvedere. In 2006, following eight years of effort by the Bloch-Bauer heirs, the painting was returned to the family; it was sold the same year for $135 million, at the time a record price for a painting. The portrait is the final and most fully representative work of Klimt's golden phase. It was the first of two depictions of Adele by Klimt—the second was completed in 1912; these were two of several works by the artist that the family owned. Adele had left Klimt's artworks to the Galerie Belvedere in her will, although when she died in 1925 those artwo

Nazi-looted art

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2016 albums

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Upcoming albums

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Rectum

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Rectum

The rectum is the final straight portion of the large intestine in humans and some other mammals, and the gut in others. The adult human rectum is about 12 centimetres (4.7 in) long,[2] and begins at the rectosigmoid junction, the end of the sigmoid colon, at the level of the third sacral vertebra or the sacral promontory depending upon what definition is used.[3] Its caliber is similar to that of the sigmoid colon at its commencement, but it is dilated near its termination, forming the rectal ampulla. It terminates at the level of the anorectal ring (the level of the puborectalis sling) or the dentate line, again depending upon which definition is used.[3] In humans, the rectum is followed by the anal canal which is about 4 centimetres (1.6 in) long, before the gastrointestinal tract terminates at the anal verge. The word rectum comes from the Latin rectum intestinum, meaning straight intestine. Structure The rectum lies in front of the sacrum. It lies behind the bladder in males (left), and the vagi

Sex

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Pelvis

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Rotation flap

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Rotation flap

A rotation flap is a semicircular skin flap that is rotated into the defect on a fulcrum point. Rotation flaps provide the ability to mobilize large areas of tissue with a wide vascular base for reconstruction. The flap must be adequately large, and a large base is necessary if a back-cut will be needed to lengthen the flap. If the flap is too small, the residual defect can be covered by mobilizing the surrounding tissue. A drawback of rotation flaps is the extended cutting and undermining needed to create the flap, thus increasing the risk of hemorrhage and nerve damage. This term is often used in contrast with the term "free flap" where the transferred tissue is completely detached. Gastrocnemius rotational skin flap for injury to anterior aspect of lower leg 10 days after surgery Incision for gastrocnemius rotational flap Rotational flap References Weerda, Hilko (2001). Reconstructive Facial Plastic Surgery: A Problem-Solving Manual. Thieme Medical Publishers. ISBN 1-58890-076-2. See also

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Plastic surgery

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Portugal

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Portugal

Interactive map showing land and maritime borders of Portugal Portugal (Portuguese: ), officially the Portuguese Republic (Portuguese: República Portuguesa ),[note 5] is a country located mostly on the Iberian Peninsula in southwestern Europe. It is the westernmost sovereign state of mainland Europe, being bordered to the west and south by the Atlantic Ocean and to the north and east by Spain. Its territory also includes the Atlantic archipelagos of the Azores and Madeira, both autonomous regions with their own regional governments. Portugal is the oldest nation state on the Iberian Peninsula and one of the oldest in Europe and the world, its territory having been continuously settled, invaded and fought over since prehistoric times. The pre-Celtic people, Iberians, Celts, Carthaginians and Romans were followed by the invasions of the Visigoths and Suebi Germanic peoples. After the Muslim conquests of the Iberian Peninsula, most of the territory was part of Al-Andalus for several centuries. Portugal as a co

North African countries

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Portugal

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Member states of the Union for the Mediterranean

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Reformation

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Reformation

The Reformation (alternatively named the Protestant Reformation or the European Reformation[1]) was a movement within Western Christianity in the sixteenth-century Europe that posed a religious and political challenge to the Roman Catholic Church and papal authority in particular. Although the Reformation is usually considered to have started with the publication of the Ninety-five Theses by Martin Luther in 1517, there was no schism between the Catholic Church and the nascent Luther until the 1521 Edict of Worms. The edict condemned Luther and officially banned citizens of the Holy Roman Empire from defending or propagating his ideas.[2] The end of the Reformation era is disputed: it could be considered to end with the enactment of the confessions of faith which began the Age of Orthodoxy. Other suggested ending years relate to the Counter-Reformation, the Peace of Westphalia, or that it never ended since there are still Protestants today. Movements had been made towards a Reformation prior to Luther, so so

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16th century in France

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Early Modern France

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Royal Mail

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Royal Mail

The Royal Mail (Welsh: Post Brenhinol; Scottish Gaelic: a' Phuist Rìoghail) is a postal service and courier company in the United Kingdom, originally established in 1516. The company's subsidiary, Royal Mail Group Limited, operates the brands Royal Mail (letters) and Parcelforce Worldwide (parcels). General Logistics Systems, an international logistics company, is a wholly owned subsidiary of Royal Mail Group. For a brief period in the early 2000s, the group used the name Consignia before reverting to its original name. The company provides mail collection and delivery services throughout the UK. Letters are deposited in a post box, taken to a post office, or collected in bulk from businesses. Royal Mail owns and maintains the UK's distinctive red pillar boxes, first introduced in 1852, many of which bear the initials of the reigning monarch.[4] Deliveries are made at least once every day except Sundays and bank holidays at uniform charges for all UK destinations. Royal Mail generally aims to make first clas

Postal organizations

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Companies based in the City of London

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Pottery of ancient Greece

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Pottery of ancient Greece

Hellenistic Amphorae, stacked the way they were probably transported in antiquity, display in the Bodrum Museum of Underwater Archaeology. The Hirschfeld Krater, mid-8th century BC, from the late Geometric period, depicting ekphora, the act of carrying a body to its grave. National Archaeological Museum, Athens. Ancient Greek pottery, due to its relative durability, comprises a large part of the archaeological record of ancient Greece, and since there is so much of it (over 100,000 painted vases are recorded in the Corpus vasorum antiquorum),[1] it has exerted a disproportionately large influence on our understanding of Greek society. The shards of pots discarded or buried in the 1st millennium BC are still the best guide available to understand the customary life and mind of the ancient Greeks. There were several vessels produced locally for everyday and kitchen use, yet finer pottery from regions such as Attica was imported by other civilizations throughout the Mediterranean, such as the Etruscans in It

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Ancient Greek painting

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Iron Age Greek art

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Rhode Island Heritage Hall of Fame Women Inductees

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Rhode Island Heritage Hall of Fame Women Inductees

Catharine R. Williams ca. 1835 Matilda Sissieretta Jones, 1897 Aileen Riggin, 1920 The Rhode Island Heritage Hall of Fame is a non-profit, volunteer organization that recognizes those who have brought credit, prominence, or contributions to the heritage or history of Rhode Island.[1] History The organization was founded and incorporated as a non-profit organization in 1965 to recognize the contributions of citizens of the state of Rhode Island. Since 2013, it has had a partnership with the Heritage Harbor Museum.[2] Though the organization recognizes the contributions of any citizen, a separate listing of women inductees is maintained.[3] Criteria The eligibility criteria for membership requires that significant contributions to the history or heritage of Rhode Island and is open to those born in the state, those who are residents when their notability occurred, and those who have permanent homes in Rhode Island.[4] Inductees The hall inducts new members annually and includes both contemporary

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Started in 1965 in Rhode Island

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Lists of hall of fame inductees

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Roztocznik

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Roztocznik

Roztocznik (German: Olbersdorf) is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Dzierżoniów, within Dzierżoniów County, Lower Silesian Voivodeship, in south-western Poland.[2] Prior to 1945 it was in Germany. It lies approximately 14 km (9 mi) east of Dzierżoniów, and 47 km (29 mi) south-west of the regional capital Wrocław. The village has a population of 499. History The earliest mention was included in the 1305 years in the book of salaries Bishop of Wrocław. In the nineteenth century Roztocznik a population of 606 people who engaged in weaving cotton, trade to a small extent, sheep and cattle. The old name of the village: -1305. "Alberti villa" -1375r. "Albrechtsdorf" -1677r. "Olbersdorff", "Olbrechtsdorf" -1785. "Ullersdorf". Over the centuries evolved into "Olbersdorf" from 1785. After World War II (1945r.) was called "rotting stream." From September 1, 1947 Roztocznik. Field in Roztocznik Initially, when Silesia belonged to the Piast village was owned by the monastery, later the Knig

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DeStorm Power

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DeStorm Power

DeStorm Power ( DAY-storm; born January 30, 1982) is an American actor, comedian, and Internet personality. Life and career DeStorm comes from Baltimore, Maryland, where he lived with his mother and seven siblings.[1] In 2001 Power moved from Maryland to New York to pursue his music endeavors. After interning and ghostwriting at Atlantic Records, Universal, and various other record labels,[2] Power set out to establish himself as a performer, using YouTube as a platform to share his singing, songwriting, and production skills with the online community.[3] Power's videos are typically comedic, and also often incorporate rapping and beatboxing.[4] He was an accomplished triple jumper and Master personal trainer, and was notably invited to the Olympic Trials.[2] Power appeared as Mr. T in the first season of Epic Rap Battles of History[5] from which he achieved a gold record. In 2008 he lost his mother Mashala to stomach cancer. He moved to Los Angeles, California in 2011 where he joined his manager Sara Pena

Southern hip hop musicians

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African-American male rappers

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Internet celebrities

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Rhombicuboctahedron

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Rhombicuboctahedron

Rhombicuboctahedron (Click here for rotating model) Type Archimedean solidUniform polyhedron Elements F = 26, E = 48, V = 24 (χ = 2) Faces by sides 8{3}+(6+12){4} Conway notation eC or aaCaaaT Schläfli symbols rr{4,3} or r { 4 3 } {\displaystyle r{\begin{Bmatrix}4\\3\end{Bmatrix}}} t{4,3} Wythoff symbol 3 4 | 2 Coxeter diagram Symmetry group O, B, [4,3], (*432), order 48 Rotation group O, [4,3]+, (432), order 24 Dihedral angle 3-4: 144°44′08″ (144.74°)4-4: 135° References U, C, W Properties Semiregular convex Colored faces 3.4.4.4(Vertex figure) Deltoidal icositetrahedron(dual polyhedron) Net In geometry, the rhombicuboctahedron, or small rhombicuboctahedron, is an Archimedean solid with eight triangular and eighteen square faces. There are 24 identical vertices, with one triangle and three squares meeting at each. (Note that six of the squares only share vertices with the triangles while the other twelve share an edge.) The polyh

Snub tilings

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Graphs of vertices 24

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Pranburia

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Pranburia

Pranburia is a monotypic genus of Southeast Asian ant mimicking corinnid sac spiders containing the single species, Pranburia mahannopi. Christa L. Deeleman-Reinhold described the first male in 1993,[2] and the first female in 2001.[3] It has only been found in Thailand, Cambodia, Laos, and Malaysia.[1] The species is named after Narong Mahannop, one of the collectors of the holotype, and the genus is named after the Pranburi Province, where the male holotype was collected.[2] Description Males have a body length of about 6 millimetres (0.24 in). The carapace is about 3 millimetres (0.12 in) long, is colored dark brown, and has several rows of white feathery setae. The head and back part of the opisthosoma also have several longer bristles. Their eyes span half the width of their head, both rows slightly procurved. The femurs are dark brown, while the other segments and middle legs are a solid shade of lighter brown. They have many of the same characters as members of Castianeira, but can be distinguished b

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Spiders of Asia

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Animals described in 1993

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Right Thoughts, Right Words, Right Action

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Right Thoughts, Right Words, Right Action

Right Thoughts, Right Words, Right Action is the fourth studio album by Scottish indie rock band Franz Ferdinand. It was released through the Domino Recording Company on 26 August 2013 in the United Kingdom and on 27 August in the United States. It was the band's first studio album since Tonight: Franz Ferdinand, which was released four years earlier. Recorded during 2013, the album was recorded in multiple studios in different locations. It also features production from multiple different musicians. Similar to Tonight, the album features more of a dance-oriented sound throughout. The band focused on making a generally positive and uplifting album with Right Thoughts, Right Words, Right Action. Band member Alex Kapranos, who provided production on the album, labeled it the band's "most positive record", stating that the album title reflects the mood of the album as well as the mood of the band members during the recording of the album. The album received generally favourable reviews from music critics upon

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Franz Ferdinand (band) albums

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Domino Recording Company albums

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Pristina

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Pristina

Pristina[1] or Prishtina (UK: ,[2] US: ;[3][4] Albanian: Prishtina or Prishtinë (listen); Serbian: Приштина, romanized: Priština) is the capital and largest city of Kosovo.[a] The city has a majority Albanian population, alongside other smaller communities. With a municipal population of 204,721 inhabitants (2016), Pristina is the second-largest city in the world with a predominantly Albanian-speaking population, after Albania's capital, Tirana.[5][6] Within Serbia, it would be the 4th largest. Geographically, it is located in the north-eastern part of Kosovo close to the Goljak mountains. During the Paleolithic Age, what is now the area of Pristina was envolved by the Vinča culture. It was home to several Illyrian and Roman people at the classical times. King Bardyllis brought various tribes together in the area of Pristina in the 4th century BC, establishing the Dardanian Kingdom.[7][8][9] The heritage of the classical era is still evident in the city, represented by ancient city of Ulpiana, that was cons

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Pristina

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Rinconada Bikol language

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Rinconada Bikol language

Rinconada Bikol or simply Rinconada, spoken in the province of Camarines Sur, Philippines, is one of several languages that compose the Inland Bikol (or Southern Bicol) group of the Bikol macrolanguage. It belongs to the Austronesian language family that also includes most Philippine languages, the Formosan languages of Taiwanese aborigines, Malay (Indonesian and Bahasa Malaysia), the Polynesian languages and Malagasy. Rinconada is surrounded and shared common features with other Bikol languages. It is bordered by Coastal Bikol to the north, Buhinon to the east, and West Miraya language immediately to the south. The closest relatives to this language outside the Bicol region are Aklanon, Waray-Waray, and to a lesser extent, Tagalog, especially the variants used in Batangas and Marinduque. Rinconada Bikol is the language adopted by the indigenous population of Agta/Aeta (the Negrito) in the surrounding mountainous areas of Mount Iriga (old name is Mount Asog). The Austronesian people that have migrated to th

Languages of the Philippines

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Languages of Camarines Sur

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Prizren

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Prizren

Prizren (Serbian Cyrillic: Призрен) is a city and municipality located in the Prizren District of Kosovo.[a] According to the 2011 census, the city of Prizren has 85,119 inhabitants, while the municipality has 177,781 inhabitants.[2] Prizren is a historic city located on the banks of the Prizren Bistrica river, and on the slopes of the Šar Mountains (Albanian: Malet e Sharrit) in the southern part of Kosovo. The municipality has a border with Albania and North Macedonia.[3] By road the city is 99 kilometres (62 miles) northwest of Skopje, 85 kilometres (53 miles) south of Pristina and 175 kilometres (109 miles) northeast of Tirana. History Ancient The Roman[4] town of Theranda in Ptolemy's Geography is mentioned in the 2nd century AD.[5] In the 5th century, it is mentioned as being restored in Dardania with the name of Petrizên by Procopius of Caesarea in De aedificiis (Book IV, Chapter 4).[6] Sometimes it is mentioned even in relation to the Justiniana Prima. It is thought that its modern name comes fr

Mass murder in 1912

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Prizren

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People from Prizren

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Rising Star Cave

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Rising Star Cave

The Rising Star cave system (also known as Westminster or Empire cave) is located in the Malmani dolomites, in Bloubank River valley, about 800 meters (0.50 miles; 2,600 feet) southwest of Swartkrans, part of the Cradle of Humankind World Heritage Site in South Africa.[1][2] Recreational caving has occurred there since the 1960s.[2] Fossils found (starting in 2013) in the cave were, in 2015, proposed to represent a previously unknown extinct species of hominin named Homo naledi.[1] Names In the 1980s, the names "Empire", "Westminster", and "Rising Star" were used interchangeably.[3] The species name, naledi (seSotho for "star"), and the "Dinaledi Chamber" (incorporating the Sotho word for "stars")[4] were so named by members of the Rising Star Expedition in reference to the species and chamber's location in Rising Star Cave.[1][4][5] A portion of the cave, used by the excavation team en route to the Dinaledi Chamber, is called "Superman's Crawl" because most people can fit through only by holding one arm

Limestone caves

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South African heritage sites

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Paleoanthropological sites

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Protestantism

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Protestantism

Door displaying the Ninety-five Theses at All Saints' Church, Wittenberg. According to popular account, Martin Luther nailed his Theses to this door, beginning the Reformation. Protestantism is the second-largest form of Christianity with collectively between 800 million and more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians.[1][2][a] It originated with the 16th century Reformation,[b] a movement against what its followers perceived to be errors in the Roman Catholic Church.[4] Protestants reject the Roman Catholic doctrine of papal supremacy and sacraments, but disagree among themselves regarding the real presence of Christ in the Eucharist.[5] They emphasize the priesthood of all believers, justification by faith alone (sola fide) rather than also by good works, and the highest authority of the Bible alone (rather than also with sacred tradition) in faith and morals (sola scriptura).[6] The "five solae" summarise basic theological differences in opposition to the Roman Catholic Chur

Protestantism in Europe

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Christian terminology

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Robot leg

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Robot leg

A robotic leg powered by air muscles. A robot leg (or robotic leg) is a mechanical leg that performs the same functions that a human leg can. The robotic leg is typically programmed to execute similar functions as a human leg. A robotic leg is similar to a prosthetic leg. However, a robotic leg can be controlled electrically or mechanically. To have the robotic leg emulate human leg behaviors, surgeons must redirect the nerves that previously controlled some of the person’s lower-leg muscles to cause the thigh muscles to contract. Sensors embedded in the robotic leg measure the electrical pulses created by both a re-innervated muscle contraction, and the existing thigh muscle.[1] Mechanism A robotic Leg attaches to an individual who has had a lower extremity amputation—of a portion of a leg or foot. Doctors and technicians measure the remaining limb structure and of the person’s prosthesis to ideally fit the robotic leg.[2] After they attach the robotic leg, they embed the sensors in the robotic leg that m

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Robotics

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Sani Pass

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Sani Pass

Sani Pass is a mountain pass located in the West of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa on the road between Underberg, KwaZulu-Natal and Mokhotlong, Lesotho. Route The route up Sani Pass starts at 1544 m, and climbs 1332 vertical metres to an altitude of 2876 m. The road is a steep gravel road with gradients up to 1:3, which can be difficult to drive in bad weather and may be covered with snow and ice in winter. By South African law only 4x4 vehicles are allowed on the road.[1] Several tour operators[2] run guided tours up and down the pass. The pass lies between the border controls of both countries and is approximately 9 km in length.[3] Caution must be exercised and motorists must be alert while navigating the pass as it has claimed many lives.[1] Occasionally the remains of vehicles that did not succeed in navigating the pass's steep gradients and poor traction surfaces can be seen. Road upgrades The Sani Pass dirt road will be upgraded in two phases; phase 1 extending for 14 km from the P318 (Sani Pass) turn

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Mountain passes of KwaZulu-Natal

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Mountain passes of South Africa

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Santa Clara, California

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Santa Clara, California

Santa Clara is a city in Santa Clara County, California. The city's population was 116,468 as of the 2010 United States Census, making it the ninth-most populous city in the San Francisco Bay Area. Located on the southern coast of San Francisco Bay immediately west of San Jose and 45 miles (72 km) southeast of San Francisco, the city was founded in 1777 with the establishment of Mission Santa Clara de Asís, the eighth of 21 California missions. The city was later incorporated in 1852. The mission, the city, and the county are all named for Saint Clare of Assisi.[9] Santa Clara is located in the center of Silicon Valley and is home to the headquarters of several high-tech companies such as Intel. It is also home to Santa Clara University, the oldest institution of higher learning in the state of California, which was built around Mission Santa Clara de Asís.[10] Levi's Stadium, the home of the National Football League's San Francisco 49ers, is located in the city. Santa Clara is bordered by San Jose on all si

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Educational institutions started in 1958

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Private middle schools in California

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Matthäus Schwarz

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Matthäus Schwarz

Portrait of Matthäus Schwarz by Hans Maler zu Schwaz, 1526, Musée du Louvre Matthäus Schwarz at the age of 19. A typical page from the Trachtenbuch. Matthäus Schwarz (19 February 1497 - c.1574) was a German accountant, best known for compiling his Klaidungsbüchlein or Trachtenbuch (usually translated as "Book of Clothes"), a book cataloguing the clothing that he wore between 1520 and 1560. The book has been described as "the world's first fashion book".[1] Early life Schwarz was born in Augsburg, the son of Ulrich Schwartz the Younger, a wine merchant. His family were originally carpenters from Rettenbergen in Bavaria, but moved to Augsburg in the 15th century. His grandfather, also Ulrich Schwarz, became master of the carpenters' guild in Augsburg, and served as mayor of Augsburg from 1469 to 1477, but fell from power after disputes with the leading families in the city and was executed in 1478. Schwartz was educated in Augsburg and Heidenheim. His mother died in 1502. His Latin was not good enough f

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Auckland Museum PCAP-related

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German accountants

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Scottish diaspora

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Scottish diaspora

The Scottish diaspora consists of Scottish people who emigrated from Scotland and their descendants. The diaspora is concentrated in countries such as the United States, Canada, Australia, England, New Zealand, Ireland and to a lesser extent Argentina, Chile and Brazil. Americas Argentina A Scottish Argentine population has existed at least since 1825.[16] There are an estimated 100,000 Argentines of Scottish ancestry, the most of any country outside the English-speaking world.[17] Scottish Argentines have been incorrectly referred to as English.[18] Brazil Canada Sir John A. Macdonald, the first Prime Minister of Canada James Naismith, the inventor of the sport of basketball Scottish people have a long history in Canada, dating back several centuries. Many towns, rivers and mountains have been named in honour of Scottish explorers and traders such as Mackenzie Bay and Calgary is named after a Scottish beach. Most notably, the Atlantic province of Nova Scotia is Latin for New Scotland. Once

Scottish diaspora

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People of Scottish descent

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Sea Peoples

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Sea Peoples

This famous scene from the north wall of Medinet Habu is often used to illustrate the Egyptian campaign against the Sea Peoples in what has come to be known as the Battle of the Delta. Whilst accompanying hieroglyphs do not name Egypt's enemies, describing them simply as being from "northern countries", early scholars noted the similarities between the hairstyles and accessories worn by the combatants and other reliefs in which such groups are named. The Sea Peoples are a purported seafaring confederation that attacked ancient Egypt and other regions of the East Mediterranean prior to and during the Late Bronze Age collapse (1200–900 BCE).[1][2] Following the creation of the concept in the nineteenth century, it became one of the most famous chapters of Egyptian history, given its connection with, in the words of Wilhelm Max Müller: "the most important questions of ethnography and the primitive history of classic nations".[3][4] Their origins undocumented, the various Sea Peoples have been proposed to have o

Late Bronze Age collapse

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Invasions of Egypt

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Indo-European history

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Rumex lunaria

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Rumex lunaria

Rumex lunaria is a species of flowering plant in the family Polygonaceae, native to the Canary Islands. It has been introduced to Italy, Sardinia and Sicily. It was first described by Carl Linnaeus.[1] In habitat in La Palma In habitat in Lanzarote Flowers Fruit References "Rumex lunaria L.", Plants of the World Online, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, retrieved 2018-02-16

Rumex

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Polygonaceae

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Rutherglen railway station

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Rutherglen railway station

Rutherglen is a railway station in the town centre of Rutherglen, South Lanarkshire, Scotland, and lying on the Argyle railway line. The station is served by a single island platform, connected to the street by a footbridge. The closed island platform which lies on the West Coast Main Line, that was previously in use before the Argyle line was re-opened is still visible, although it is no longer accessible to the public. History The remains of the old platform, beside the West Coast Main Line, 2016. The original Rutherglen station was opened on the Caledonian Railway's line to Glasgow on 1 June 1849.[2] This station was replaced on 31 March 1879 by a new station located some 765m east of the original station.[2] Services on the Glasgow Central Railway commenced on 1 November 1895. Glasgow Central Railway services were withdrawn as part of the Beeching Axe on 5 October 1964. On 6 May 1974 the WCML was opened to electrified services which included Hamilton Circle services through the slow line island

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Rutherglen

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Started in 1849 in Scotland

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S-wave

topic

S-wave

Plane shear wave Propagation of a spherical S-wave in a 2d grid (empirical model) In seismology, S-waves, secondary waves, or shear waves (sometimes called an elastic S-wave) are a type of elastic wave and are one of the two main types of elastic body waves, so named because they move through the body of an object, unlike surface waves.[1] The S-wave is a transverse wave, meaning that, in the simplest situation, the oscillations of the particles of the medium are perpendicular to the direction of wave propagation, and the main restoring force comes from shear stress.[2] The shadow zone of a P-wave. S-waves don't penetrate the outer core, so they're shadowed everywhere more than 104° away from the epicenter (from USGS). Its name, S for secondary, comes from the fact that it is the second direct arrival on an earthquake seismogram, after the compressional primary wave, or P-wave, because S-waves travel slower in rock. Unlike the P-wave, the S-wave cannot travel through the molten outer core of the Ear

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